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Iran Smoke and mirrors May 29th 2008 From The Economist print edition Iran makes it hard even for benevolent outsiders to understand it

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Iran

Smoke and mirrors

May 29th 2008From The Economist print edition

Iran makes it hard even for benevolent outsiders to understand it

THROUGHOUT its 29 years, the Islamic Republic has puzzled, even baffled, observers. Its leaders proclaim peace and war in the same breath, and pretend to practise both democracy and theocracy. But lately the symptoms of schizophrenia have grown more pronounced.


Geography
Geography

  • Most is mountain or desert so uneven demographic distribution (70% of Iranians live in 30% of land in north and nw and in major cities);

  • Climate: scarce precipitation and extreme temperature differences

10% of world total oil reserves;

2ndlargest exporter of oil in OPEC and 4th largest producer in the world;

oil reserves concentrated along Persian gulf in south and Caspian Sea in north


We have a long history with Iran

  • Iran took an American embassy hostage. It may have had a hand in the bombing of the American marine barracks in Lebanon in 1983 and it stands accused of helping to kill American soldiers in Iraq. It is not surprising that many Americans consider Iran a bitter foe.

The Axis of Evil in a succinct package (Kim Jong Il, Khamenei, Saddam and George W.).

  • Nor is it surprising that Iranians return the favour. America organised the coup against Mossadegh, supported the shah, helped Saddam in the Iran-Iraq war, invaded two of Iran's neighbours and impose sanctions on Iran. The Iranian regime considers America an implacable foe and routinely denounces it, in political speeches and organised rituals such as those fiery Friday prayers, as the Great Satan or “the Global Arrogance”.


Historical traditions

  • Authoritarianism

  • Persian

  • Shiite

  • No direct colonization

HEAR OUR PRAYER: Iranian Shiites pray outside the Jamkaran Mosque near Iran's holy city of Qom, where the Mahdi - the Shiite equivalent of the Christian Messiah - is supposed to answer prayers until his return.


Persian New Year

NPR: In every home, the haftseen table is decorated with seven items – since seven is considered a lucky number. Each item begins with the letter sin (s) in Persian, and each item is a symbol of spring and renewal.

Watch: Norwuz: Simply explained

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nsuAoZ5IYiU


An Iranian woman in Tehran lights a candle on the ceremonial Nowruz table on the first day of the Iranian new year, March 2004. Some families add goldfish to the table to represent life.



  • Jump over a bonfire for “Chahr-ShanbehSouri” on Tuesday, March 15, 2011, at Persian Center, 2029 Durant Avenue in Berkeley from 6-10pm to shake off the darkness of winter and welcome the lightness of spring. This is a free, family-friendly, non-alcoholic event held outdoors on Durant Avenue.

  • Inside the Persian Center, a traditional altar holds green grass, live goldfish, food and other items representative of spring called the “haftseen” or seven ‘s’s as each item on the table begins with the letter ‘s’

  • A Persian ritual passed down since ancient Zoroastrian times, the Persian New Year Festival, called Chahar-ShanbehSouri, literally means ‘Eve of Wednesday” because the festival is always held on the last Tuesday of winter, just before the Vernal Equinox or first moment of spring


An Iranian woman jumps over a bonfire in southern Tehran on March 19, 2013 during the Wednesday Fire feast, or ChaharshanbehSoori, held annually on the last Wednesday eve before the Spring holiday of Noruz.


Ayatollahs Aside, Iranians Jump for Joy at Spring NYT 3/20/06

After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the ruling ayatollahs sought to stamp out many traditions, like Nowruz, a celebration with some Zoroastrian links that stretches back thousands of years to the pre-Islamic era, to mark the arrival of spring. The celebration is considered by many here the most Iranian of holidays.The ayatollahs tried, and failed.

. . .

. While Iran's religious leaders have followed a policy of confrontation with the West over their nation's nuclear program, they have, however grudgingly, ceded to the public's insistence on retaining, even bolstering, traditions not founded in Shiism.

While it was the reformist government of former President Mohammad Khatamithat decided to establish parks to hold the fire-jumping festivities, for example, the practice was continued this year after the election of the ideologically conservative President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

That Iran's religious leaders have accepted Nowruz, and other prerevolution traditions like ChaharShanbehSuri, also demonstrates a growing degree of stability, as the country's leadership has tried to reconcile the bookends of Iranian national identity — faith and culture, experts here said

Revelers in Tehran gathering around a small bonfire in a holiday ritual that leads up to the Iranian New Year


Shi a sunni split
Shi’a Sunni 3/20/06Split

  • Split soon after Islam begins over question of who should be caliph—Shiites think only heirs of prophet.

  • messianic belief that a “hidden Imam” will return at the end of time and restore a just order (makes world politics in some ways irrelevant or even . . . anathema. . . To the faith)

  • Means they extend only provisional legitimacy to rulers who will let Islamic institutions flourish


RELIGIOUS FERVOR: 3/20/06An Iranian Shiite prays for the return of the Mahdi in Jamkaran Mosque.

  • Clergy play a more central role in Shiism

  • Clergy stand in collectively for the hidden Imam

  • Over centuries play a role like that of the Christian priesthood in pre-modern Europe or the Confucian mandarins in China; but, compared to Confucian mandarins, Shiite clerics are much more hostile to power holders and held more independence


Shiite tradition shapes iranian state
Shiite tradition shapes Iranian state 3/20/06

  • Central principle is:velayat-e faqih, or rule by Islamic jurists developed by __________

  • Justified revolution: Whereas a monarchy was a usurpation of God’s rule on earth, a system of government by cle______ trained in Islamic jurisprudence would be a continuation of the political system first established by the Prophet Mohammed.

  • Since such a form of government was the only regime consistent with the will of god, s_________forms, such as that of the Shah, should be overthrown.

  • As such, the Iranian constitution and political institutions are an attempt to express G_____’s will rather than instruments of human will –the point of the republic in to guide the people toward God, not to serve the individual or mediate between diverse interests

  • The idea: Shiite Clergy have a d_________ right to rule since they interpret god’s will


Importance of the 1979 revolution
Importance of the 1979 Revolution 3/20/06

first to create a th______—and combine it with de______

most revolutions are directed against church and state-the Iranian rev was directed only against the ___________


Institutions 3/20/06

GO here to click on the links and find out about each institution

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/iran_power/html/default.stm


What does vet mean
What does “vet” mean? 3/20/06

Broadly, vetting is a process of examination and evaluation. Specifically, vetting often refers to performing a background check on someone before offering them employment. In addition, in intelligence gathering, assets are vetted to determine their usefulness.

Origin

To vet was originally a horse-racing term, referring to the requirement that a horse be checked for health and soundness by a veterinarian before being allowed to race. Thus, it has taken the general meaning "to check".

Vetting in AP Gov: advisors to a presidential candidate vet potential VP candidates; subject matter committees in the ______ vet nominees, advisors to POTUS vet potential Supreme Court nominees, and the Guardian council vets candidates for office

March 8, 2013

REI head vetted by Senate committee

Jewell is nominated to be interior secretary

Interior Secretary nominee Sally Jewell testifies on Capitol Hill in Washington on Thursday before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee.


Iran 3/20/06Govbbc need to know http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-22524617

System of Government http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3W4-0w_Hzjs


  • The elections are crucial in that they will reveal the balance of power between factions in the ruling political establishment and the strength of the incumbent president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Nearly three years after the pro-reform opposition led huge public protests, the elections should also show how much the general public is willing to support the ruling groups.

  • One of the most controversial aspects of these elections is the "vetting procedure". The Guardian Council, which supervises the elections, actively vets the candidates so that, in the words of one leading jurist, it "prevents corruption and deviation". Critics see this as a way of ensuring that only loyalists enter the race.

  • Iran is not a totalitarian state and since the Islamic Revolution in 1979 there has been some openness in which political debate and action has taken shape. Elections are free in the sense that there is some choice of candidates who are elected by universal suffrage. But critics, including the opposition and the European Union, have expressed doubt that the elections are free and fair.


2012 parliamentary elections
2012 Parliamentary Elections 3/20/06

  • The parliamentary elections for the 9th Islamic Consultative Assembly, or Majlis, were held in Iran on Friday, 2 March 2012 with a second round on 4 May 2012 in those 65 districts where no candidate received 25% or more of the votes cast. More than 5,000 candidates registered but more than a third were disqualified by the Guardian Council leaving about 3,400 candidates to run for the 290 seat representing the 31 provinces.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_legislative_election,_2012

http://www.ipu.org/parline/Modlist.asp


2013 Presidential Elections 3/20/06

Iranian women hold their documents as they queue to vote in the first round of the presidential election at a polling station in Tehran on 14 June 2013. (Photo: AFP - Atta Kenare)

Published Friday, June 14, 2013


Hundreds of voters waited outside one of the biggest polling stations in uptown Tehran, an indication of a high voter turnout in the early hours of the presidential election.


Women voting at a Tehran mosque. Iranians went to the polls Friday after an unusually intense presidential campaign.


Iran election: How the vote happens Friday after an unusually intense presidential campaign.

By KasraNaji BBC Persian

Voters write the name of their preferred candidate in the white box at the bottom of the ballot paper

See the rest of the story at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-22903218

\


It was a surprise listen
It was a surprise: listen Friday after an unusually intense presidential campaign.

http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/15/world/meast/iran-elections/

Note voter turnout


Iran's Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, with black turban, gives his official seal of approval to president-elect Hassan Rouhani. Photograph: AP

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/03/iran-president-hasan-rouhani-ayatollah-khamenei


Compare 2013 to 2009: http official seal of approval to president-elect Hassan ://www.cnn.com/2013/06/15/world/meast/iran-elections/


http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/wp-content/uploads/irans-election.jpghttp://foreignpolicyblogs.com/wp-content/uploads/irans-election.jpg


Green Movementhttp://foreignpolicyblogs.com/wp-content/uploads/irans-election.jpg

The Green Movement, as a social and political movement which emerged and was active between April 2009 until February 2011 and had the support of the majority of Reformists, no longer exists. The Green Movement in Iran today consists of more radical Reformists, led by the imprisoned Mir HosseinMousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, many of whom are in exile. While there is no doubt much sympathy in Iranian society toward this current, there is no organized support for them, as much of their organized social base was crushed in the aftermath of the controversial 2009 election. The Green Movement as a current is well outside the regime’s political establishment and is unlikely to be a significant factor in the 2013 election. There also appears to be little chance that it could re-emerge as a social and political movement during the election campaign or voting, although there may very well be limited pro-Green demonstrations.


The green movement
The Green Movement http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/wp-content/uploads/irans-election.jpg


  • Iran's tenth presidential electionhttp://foreignpolicyblogs.com/wp-content/uploads/irans-election.jpg was held on 12 June 2009,with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers. The next morning the Islamic Republic News Agency, Iran's official news agency, announced that with two-thirds of the votes counted, Ahmadinejad had won the election with 62% of the votes cast, and that Mir-Hossein Mousavi had received 34% of the votes cast. The European Union,the United Kingdom, the United States, and several western countries expressed concern over alleged irregularities during the vote, and many analysts and journalists from the United States, Europe and other western based media voiced doubts about the authenticity of the results.Meanwhile many OIC member states, as well as Russia, China, India, and Brazil, have congratulated Ahmadinejad on his victory.


Many Try to Run for President in Iran, but Few Will Be Allowed

May 11, 2009 Clockwise from top left: Iranians carry posters of Mir Hussein Moussavi, a reform candidate, with former President Mohammad Khatami; men wait to register; President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad shows his identification; a woman registers to run for president.


In a fourth day of mass protests, hundreds of thousands of Iranians flooded Imam Khomeini Square in Tehran. Many wore black to honor those protesters killed in the unrest since the Iranian authorities announced a landslide victory for the incumbent just hours after the polls closed on Friday. When the main opposition candidate, Mir Hussein Moussavi, appeared, cheers tore through the crowds. He stood on top of his car to be seen by the throngs.


As the political tumult in the streets grew, the Iranian government imposed tough restrictions on foreign journalists, formally shutting down their ability to report on the unrest on the streets. Press credentials of journalists temporarily in the country to cover the election were revoked; journalists stationed in Iran were required to get explicit permission to report beyond the confines of their offices.


Shadowy Iranian Vigilantes Vow Bolder Action government imposed tough restrictions on foreign journalists, formally shutting down their ability to report on the unrest on the streets. Press credentials of journalists temporarily in the country to cover the election were revoked; journalists stationed in Iran were required to get explicit permission to report beyond the confines of their offices.

Iranian vigilantes known as Basijis entered Tehran University on Sunday where students were protesting the election


The scale of the protests have forced a few concessions, including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.


In Iran, an Iron Cleric, Now Blinking including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.


June 17, 2009 including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

  • Iran Agrees to Partial Recount of Disputed Ballots

By NAZILA FATHI and Alan Cowell

TEHRAN — Lessthan 24 hours after the largest demonstrations here since the 1979 revolution and the reported deaths of seven protesters, Iran’s Guardian Council said Tuesday it was prepared to order a recount of disputed ballots in Friday’s deeply divisive elections, but ruled out an annulment of the vote, according to state television and news reports.

The announcement seemed to represent a further reluctant concession from the authorities following Monday’s decision by the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, to conduct a formal review of the electoral process, which the opposition says was rigged.

But it fell short of demands by the main opposition candidate, Mir Hussein Moussavi, and other opponents of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad for the vote to be annulled so that a new election can be held. Mr. Moussavi has also said he does not trust the Guardian Council. The election results, announced Saturday, showed an overwhelming victory for Mr. Ahmadinejad, who was visiting Russia on Tuesday as the drama in Iran continued to unfold.


Authorities Rule Iran Election ‘Healthy’ including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

TEHRAN — As Iran’s leaders push back threats to their authority after the disputed presidential election, crushing street protests and pressing challengers to withdraw or to limit their objections, the country’s main electoral oversight group ruled Friday that the ballot had been the “healthiest” since the Islamic revolution in 1979.

The statement by the 12-member Guardian Council, which is charged with overseeing and vetting elections, fell short of formal certification of the ballot. But it offered further evidence that, despite mass demonstrations and violent confrontation with those who call the election a fraud, the authorities are intent on enforcing their writ and denying their adversaries a voice.


Recount Offer Fails to Quell Political Tumult in Iran including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

Recount Offer Fails to Quell Political Tumult in Iran

Supporters of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad held a rally in Valiasr Square in Tehran on Tuesday


Photo: Getty Images including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

The pledge from Iran's Guardian Council to recount some of the votes in Friday's election failed to calm protests. Thousands of Mr. Moussavi's supporters marched in Tehran.


Iran’s Supreme Leader Warns Protesters including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei delivering his address Friday

  • http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/20/world/middleeast/20iran.html?_r=1&ref=world


Khamenei Vows Iran Will Not Yield ‘at Any Cost’ including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

6/25 The government announced on Tuesday its intention to certify the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, center


  • December 28, 2009 including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

  • Police Are Said to Have Killed 10 in Iran Protests

  • By ROBERT F. WORTH and NAZILA FATHI

  • BEIRUT, Lebanon — Police officers in Iran opened fire into crowds of protesters on Sunday, killing at least 10 people, witnesses and opposition Web sites said, in a day of chaotic street battles that threatened to deepen the country’s civil unrest.

  • The protests, during the holiday commemorating the death of Imam Hussein, Shiite Islam’s holiest martyr, were the bloodiest and among the largest since the uprisings that followed the disputed presidential election last June, witnesses said. Hundreds of people were reported wounded in cities across the country, and the Tehran police said they had made 300 arrests.


Iran MPs want death penalty for opposition leaders including Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's call for an inquiry into accusations of vote-tampering and the Guardian Council's offer to meet with opposition candidates. But many in Iran viewed the moves as the government's effort to buy time in the hopes of dampening the momentum of the opposition.

  • Members of the Iranian parliament shout slogans calling for the execution of opposition leaders before the start of their session in Tehran February 15, 2011. — Reuters pic



Electoral system for speech after casting his vote.Majlis is based on SMDs

Since 2007, Iran has been divided into 207 electoral districts. These districts are roughly based on geography, but shaped according to the number of voters so that each district holds roughly the same number of registered voters. 202 districts are Muslim majority and 5 districts belong to the recognized religious minorities. Therefore, these districts do not correspond to the borders of top administrative divisions within Iran and each district contains one or more or parts of several provinces of Iran.

See reserved seats: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_legislative_election,_2012

But NOT a plurality: If in a districts, no one can earn ¼ of the votes, a second round election will be held after four weeks. If


1979 Revolution Background: A Coalition forms: speech after casting his vote.

(1) Urban Poor

  • early 1970's, as the price of _______

  • continued its upward climb, a rising gap forms between the rich and the poor.

  • Urban poor (esp recent rural urban migrants) wanted the basic Shi______Islamic lifestyle to return

  • oppose Shah's efforts for modernism and progress, which they believed to be w___________ dominated imperialism.

They see the Shah's reforms as self-serving and his promise of providing "progress" to be false


1979 Revolution Background: A Coalition forms: speech after casting his vote.

(2) Middle Class

want political f_____________

Who is kissing up to whom?

Even many of the pro-western middle class became increasingly angered by the regime's cronyism, internal corruption, and repressive nature and use of the secret police.


1979 Revolution Background Coalition forms: speech after casting his vote.

(3) leftist opposition

  • Includes co____________

  • Want social justice

From Persepolis


1979 Revolution Background speech after casting his vote.

Coalition forms: (4) B__________ merchants

had established networks and could bring economy to a stop

The bazaar (Persian; Arabic, suq; Turkish, çarşi), traditional marketplace located in the old quarters in a Middle Eastern city, has long been the central marketplace and crafts center, the primary arena, together with the mosque, of extrafamilial sociability, and the embodiment of the traditional Islamic urban lifestyle. Merchants and commercial trade are esteemed in Islamic civilization


1979 Revolution Background Coalition forms: speech after casting his vote.

(5) Clergy

  • moral focus point—

  • solid centralized organization,

  • communication networks,

  • good orators,

  • financial independence,

  • mobilizing networks (mosques, Islamic foundations etc),

  • legit from years of opposition to Shah

the “v__________ party”


Massive Street Demonstrations speech after casting his vote.

in 1978 and 1979

Ayatollah K_________returns from exile and urges mass demonstration

Many cities were placed under martial law. It was too late. People poured to the streets to defy the Shah.

Soldiers were ordered to shoot. They did, and according to the opposition, more than 600 people were killed in Zhaleh Square alone. This day (September 8 1978) became known as the Black Friday and that square's name was changed to the Square of Martyrs.

Only incites more to rebel.


So . . . . The Shah turns to the_______ ___________ speech after casting his vote.

Iran occupied a strategic place in U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East, acting as an island of stability, and a buffer against Soviet penetration into the region

Offends many in Iran

The Iranian S________ meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President____________, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977


The US Embassy Hostage Crisis speech after casting his vote.

February 14 1979 : Marxist students temporarily seized control of the US Embassy in Tehran. Khomeini denounced the takeover, and forced their retreat

November 4 the embassy stormed a second time, taking _____-six hostages—these students were followers of __________and inspired by the belief that the US was preparing a counter-revolution that would restore the monarchy, akin to Operation _______in 1953.

The hostage crisis continues for 444 days, generating frustration and a deep animosity in the US toward Iran, while serving as a source of revolutionary pride for many Iranians.

In April 1980 President ___________approved a military operation to rescue the hostages, —disaster after an air crash en route to Tehran killed eight servicemen.

Only after Carter had been defeated by _________in the 1980 elections did Khomeini agree to allow the hostages to leave.


Ahmadindjad? speech after casting his vote.

Iran victor 'kidnap role' probe

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4636955.stm


R__________ CHANGE speech after casting his vote.

Soon the army refuses to support the shah and he falls

The Iranian Revolution transformed Iran from a pro-western constitutional monarchy, under S______Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic, populist th__________ re________ under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

But . . . The regime change was a process


Importance of the 1979 revolution1
Importance of the 1979 Revolution speech after casting his vote.

First revolution in which the dominate ideology was r__________and the leadership cadres were cl_____ instead of secular, lay individuals

(a revolution led by religion, financed by the bazaar merchants and fought by the urban poor)


Importance of the 1979 revolution2
Importance of the 1979 Revolution speech after casting his vote.

it is the most popular since China, in terms of the__________

But in contrast, it is the only modern one in which peasants and gu____________ warfare were marginal—by and large it was an urban event


Importance of the 1979 revolution3
Importance of the 1979 Revolution speech after casting his vote.

first to create a th______—and combine it with de______

most revolutions are directed against church and state-the Iranian rev was directed only against the ___________


Importance of the Revolution speech after casting his vote.

Anti-We___________ sentiment continues

NYT Dec 20, 2005: Iranian's Oratory Reflects Devotion to '79 Revolution


Effect: “B___________ Drain” speech after casting his vote.

In the heart of "Tehrangeles," as Iranians everywhere call their largest exile community.


In comparison to other revolutions
In Comparison to other Revolutions speech after casting his vote.

  • Khomeini/Mao/Lenin similar all revolutionary organizers, personality _________

  • Iran after 79 had the same foreign policy issues as the soviets—“socialism in one country” or permanent rev.

  • Clerics play a similar role to the v___________party

  • Went through a phase similar to China’s Great Proletarian C_________ Revolution : enemies from the university purged –r_______ vs e______ debate (also like the French rev –a moderate coalition gives way to more ideological factions)


The Cultural Revolution speech after casting his vote. in Iran: (1980-1987)

(in Persian: انقلاب فرهنگی)

  • a period following the 1979 Rev where the academia of Iran was purged of Western and non-Islamic influences to bring it in line with Shia Islam

  • Directed by the Cultural Revolutionary Headquarters and later by the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council, the revolution initially closed universities for three years (1980-1983)

  • after reopening banned many books and purged thousands of students and lecturers from the schools.

  • The cultural revolution involved a certain amount of violence in taking over the university campuses since higher education in Iran at the time was dominated by leftists forces opposed to Ayatollah Khomeini's vision of theocracy and they resisted Khomeiniist control at many universities.


Marjane’s parents to smuggle in an Iron Maiden poster from Turkey into Iran in the early 1980s, when the Iranian “cultural revolution” was in its most virulent stage. Everything Western was banned, including rock music.


A Second Cultural Revolution???????? 2006 Turkey into Iran in the early 1980s, when the Iranian “

Iranian Leader Wants Purge of Liberals From Universities

New York Times

TEHRAN, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad called Tuesday for a purge of liberal and secular professors from Iranian universities, the IRNA news agency reported.

“Today, students have the right to strongly criticize their president for the continued presence of liberal and secular professors in the country’s universities, he told a group of young conservatives on National Youth Day, according to the news agency.

Mr. Ahmadinejad said the work to replace secular professors had started, but “bringing change is very difficult.” “Our educational system has been affected by 150 years of secular thought and has raised thousands of people who hold Ph.D.’s,” he said. “Changing this system is not easy and we have to do it together.”Mr. Ahmadinejad’s comments appeared to be part of a continuing crackdown on social and political freedoms that began with his election last year.

Mr. Ahmadinejad’s call to rid the universities of secular professors is reminiscent of the Cultural Revolution of 1980 to 1987, the period after the 1979 Islamic Revolution when many liberal or Western professors were fired or forced to conform to the revolutionary


Conservative policies cracking down on civil liberties
Conservative policies cracking down on civil liberties Turkey into Iran in the early 1980s, when the Iranian “

  • Nikahang, a leading cartoonist and blogger, published an interesting cartoon in his blog and in Rooz online about what many call the second Cultural Revolution


Remember China’s Turkey into Iran in the early 1980s, when the Iranian “ Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976

Set into motion by _______ _____________ its stated goal was to enforce socialism in the country by removing capitalist, traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society, and to impose ______ist orthodoxy within the Party. The revolution marked the return of _____ ___________to a position of absolute power after the failed Great Leap Forward. The movement politically paralyzed the country and significantly affected the country economically and socially. The movement paralyzed China politically and significantly affected the country economically and socially.


Chinese propaganda poster: "Destroy the old world; Forge the new world." A worker (or possibly Red Guard) crushes the crucifix, Buddha, and classical Chinese texts with his hammer; 1967.


2007 Comp question: Explain two similarities in the goals of the Great Proletarian Revolution in China and the Cultural Revolution in Iran

  • The focus of the question is on goals and not on process or outcomes.

  • The Cultural Revolution in Iran is not the Islamic Revolution; it is the revolution that follows.

  • Acceptable similarities may include:

    • Cleansing of Western values/anti-capitalism Revising education Purging political enemies Reinforcing political legitimacy Purging educational institutions

    • Affirming revolutionary ideals/values promoting ideological conformity

    • Repressing dissent Attacking intelligentsia/middle class Discrediting the past/old order elevating the status of the leader/cult of personality

  • Unacceptable answer include:

    • Equivalence between Red Guards and student mobilization in Iran; student radicalization; closing the universities; making countries stronger; taking of U.S. hostages.

    • Economics; regime change; describing what a revolution does (change government).


Effect of revolution on women
Effect of Revolution on Women the Great Proletarian Revolution in China and the Cultural Revolution in Iran

  • Contradictory because the revolution has both

  • --Opened up new possibilities for women &

  • --instituted repressive controls over women

  • Unintended because a different kind of woman has emerged in Iran than was anticipated by the revolution


Women in the revolution the Great Proletarian Revolution in China and the Cultural Revolution in Iran

  • Khomeni cultivated the "Ideal Revolutionary Woman" who was supposed to be pious and trained in tradition to pass that on to children, deferent to fathers, husbands or brothers, pious

  • He also called the chador the "flag of the revolution“

  • urged women to participate in the masses: to fight and to vote in elections in the new regime


So the effect of the rev on women on the one hand
So the effect of the Rev on women the Great Proletarian Revolution in China and the Cultural Revolution in Iran . . . On the one hand

  • . To ensure they wouldn't tempt men, the regime ordered women to cover all but face & hands and to segregate themselves from men in public places (eg no football games)

  • Hezbollah (party of god) harass women for their attire (vigilante groups who serve as unofficial watch dogs and storm troopers of the clerics and are hardly ever prosecuted)

  • Islmaic law means can stone for adultery, restrictions on women leaving country without consent of male relatives. . 

  • women barred from running for president (about 90 applied to in 2005 but were denied)

  • Women are 27% of the work force

As mayor of Tehran, Ahmadinejad,(current president) , instituted policies of gender segregation, calling for women and men to take separate elevators in government buildings.


On the other hand
On the other hand the Great Proletarian Revolution in China and the Cultural Revolution in Iran

  • Women can vote

  • women now outnumber men at universities

  • Decreasing family size leads to more demand of education and employment—”democratization of family”

  • The regime has opened up job opportunities in government, professions, & universities for women: higher percent work than other Muslim Countries

  • Globalization brought information & images of women's gains elsewhere

Shirin Ebadi

Loosened dress code under Khatami

Women vote in 2005 election


Country the Great Proletarian Revolution in China and the Cultural Revolution in Iran

Rank *

Lower or Single House

Upper House or Senate

Elections

Seats

Women

% W

Elections

Seats

Women

% W

77

11 2012

433

77

117.8%

11 2012

99

20

20.2%

57

05 2010

650

146

22.5%

N/A

760

172

22.6%

96

12 2011

450

61

13.6%

N/A

163

13

8.0%

64

03 2008

2978

635

21.3%

---

---

---

---

133

05 2012

290

09

3.1%

---

---

---

---

19

07 2012

500

184

36.8%

07 2012

128

42

32.8%

97

01 2011

113

15

13.3%

---

---

---

---

Women in Politics: See if you can figure which of our countries is which

US is included . . . . .


After President Mohammad _________came to power in 1997, Islamic dress started shrinking and finally became a simple head scarf and tunic. (The tighter or more slit the better, and preferably pink this year.) Iran was looking for ways to take part in international women's events without abandoning Islamic dress.


Women are a driving force in the ___________ movement Islamic dress started shrinking and finally became a simple head scarf and tunic. (The tighter or more slit the better, and preferably pink this year.) Iran was looking for ways to take part in international women's events without abandoning Islamic dress.

Women became a driving force, emboldened by Mr. Moussavi’s ground-breaking decision to campaign alongside his wife, the distinguished political scientist Zahra Rahnavard.



Peace prize to iranian woman
_________Peace Prize to Iranian Woman 2010

  • On October 11, 2003, the Nobel Committee announced that it was awarding the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize to Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian activist who has worked for women's rights and children's rights. This is the tenth year in Nobel history that the prize has been awarded to women, and Shirin Ebadi is the 11th woman, the first Muslim woman, and first Iranian to be so honored.

    (http://womenshistory.about.com/b/a/034540.htm)


Women in the Olympic games 2010

Olympic dream a reality for Iran's female skier

As the first Iranian woman in Winter Olympics history, the 21-year-old will head a four-member Iranian team that will be the only one from the Middle East

Najme Habtin, Iranian Archer. Foto of her during archery training ahead of the Beijing 2008 Olympics at Olympic Green Archery Field on August 6, 2008 in Beijing, China.


Restrictions on presidential candidates barring women from running
Restrictions on Presidential Candidates barring women from running

  • ________ __________ vets

  • only “well known political personality” can run for President (interrupted by GC as no women)

Every four years, hundreds of Iranians register to stand as candidates in the country's presidential election. Women have signed up to run since 1997 — yet no female has ever been certified by the government to run for President. This month, 42 women were among the 475 people who signed up, harboring hope that this time, there was a real chance for a female candidate to stand http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1899763,00.html#ixzz2OfpThseU

A woman talks to journalists after registering as a candidate for President of Iran, despite a ban on such announcements by the Interior Ministry

Oh . . By the way only Shiite can run for President


Iran Bans Women from Attending Men's __________Games running

  • May 2006 Iran's hard-line president surprised many of his country's soccer fans last month when he announced that women would be allowed to attend men's soccer matches - something that had previously been forbidden. Some observers think he was trying to gain the support of moderates in order to build national unity amid increasing international pressure over Iran's nuclear program. But then, Iran's supreme leader forced the president the reconsider his decision.

  • Iranian female soccer fans stand behind fencing to watch a training session in Tehran. The country has banned females from watching soccer inside stadiums

  • The president's spokesman said Mahmoud Ahmadinejad decided to reverse his decision after the _______ ___________called on him to consider the views of Iran's religious leaders. Some of the country's top clerics and lawmakers had criticized the president's announcement. They said that a woman looking at the body of a male stranger at games like this one earlier this year would violate Islamic law.


  • From an NPR interview: running

  • Regime post 1979 has done 4 things well

  • Education for women (more than men in university), birth rate, health care and disparity b/w urban and rural

  • About birth rate: at first wanted high, b/c of war with Iraq (wanted soldiers) but then realized economic implications, so pushed to get it down –b/c it is a theocracy, it did not have to use authoritarian means like China, it came out as “Allah’s will,” taught in mosques, control edc etc.


What are the points that come up most in articles about iranian gov
What are the points that come up most in articles about Iranian gov?

  • In the multiple layers of power that obscure the governance of Iran, no one knows for certain where the ultimate decisions are being made.

  • The Constitution gives the ________ __________near total control of the state, though officials like to emphasize that he is selected by the ___________of Experts, which is elected by the public. The leader appoints all military and security commanders, he has the power to declare war and must confirm the election of the_________. He appoints the head of the judiciary, more than half the members of the Guardian Council and the head of state television.

  • Still, Iran is not a country ruled by decree. There are multiple power centers and competing agendas, requiring that major decisions be made after consultation and compromise http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DEFD71E3EF93BA15756C0A9609C8B63


  • Unlike in the United States, in Iran the president is not the head of ________nor the commander in _______That status is held by Ayatollah Ali______________, the supreme leader, whose role combines civil and religious authority. At the moment, this president’s power comes from two sources, they say: the unqualified support of the supreme leader, and the international condemnation he manages to generate when he speaks up.

  • “The United States pays too much attention to Ahmadinejad,” said an Iranian political scientist who spoke on the condition of anonymity for fear of reprisal. “He is not that consequential.”

  • That is not to say that Mr. Ahmadinejad is insignificant. He controls the mechanics of civil government, much the way a ________ ______does in a state like Egypt , where the real power rests with the president. He manages the budget and has put like-minded people in positions around the country, from provincial governors to prosecutors. His base of support is the Basiji militia and elements of the ________________Guards http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/24/world/middleeast/24iran.html


A candy shop in Qum featured a poster of Ayatollah and his ________predecessor, Ayatollah Ruhollah__________, the father of the revolution.


Supreme Leader ________predecessor, Ayatollah Ruhollah__________, the father of the revolution.

Iran has had two "Supreme Leaders"Ayatollah Ruhollah ____________, 1979–1989,and Ayatollah Ali _______________, 1989–present.


The image of Ayatollah Ali ____________i, the supreme leader of Iran, looking down on a street in Tehran


Present and Past Presidents of Iran, looking down on a street in Tehran

Iranian President Mohammad __________right, smiles as Iran's president-electMahmoud, _____________ looks on during a meeting in Tehran on Wednesday June 29, 2005. Iran's non-elected constitutional watchdog Wednesday approved the result of the presidential runoff election that gave ultraconservative Ahmadinjead a landslide victory. (AP Photo/Hasan Sarbakhshian


In the multiple layers of power that obscure the governance of Iran, no one knows for certain where the ultimate decisions are being made.

The Constitution gives the supreme leader near total control of the state, though officials like to emphasize that he is selected by the Assembly of______________, which is elected by the public. The leader appoints all military and security commanders, he has the power to declare ______and must confirm the election of the __________He appoints the head of the judiciary, more than half the members of the Guardian Council and the head of state television.

Still, Iran is not a country ruled by decree. There are multiple power centers and competing agendas, requiring that major decisions be made after consultation and compromise.



The President of the Islamic Republic of Iran takes his oath of office inside a mosque in Tehran, the nation's capital.

The outgoing president hands the presidential seal of office to Iran's Supreme Leader and Head of__________. The Supreme Leader then hands the seal to the new president, and administers the oath of office.

On the wall is a portrait of the Ayatollah Khomeni, the founder and first leader of the Islamic R____________


Parliament Mahjiles of office inside a mosque in Tehran, the nation's capital.


Not a total r stamp
Not a total r__________ stamp of office inside a mosque in Tehran, the nation's capital.

  • unlike in most Arab countries and pre-rev

  • debate—even fist fights

  • legislation must be passed by them and govt has to work to get it thru

  • can impeach pres

  • Must confirm presidential n_____________ Refused to confirm 5 of Amadinajad’s nominees for cabinet

  • Recently forced A___________ to appear before them for a “question” hour




Electoral system for mahjiles trs two round system
Electoral System for Mahjiles: TRS and Mehdi Karroubi to be executed“Two Round System

After the first round of the election the votes are calculated and the candidates who have received the highest number of votes and at least a required minimum percentage of votes get a seat in the Majlis. An absolute majority is not required – as it is in many other TRS – to acquire a seat in this first round, but a plurality of 25% is sufficient. (This was changed just before the 2000 election from a one-third minimum as a compromise between the previous 33% and a suggested simple plurality). If there are still seats to be filled after the first round there will be a second round, a runoff. In this round only a simple plurality of the votes is required to be elected.


Electoral system for president and Mehdi Karroubi to be executed

What other country that we study has this electoral system for president?



After casting his ballot, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad greeted supporters. The election has seemingly thrown Mr. Ahmadinejad onto the defensive


# greeted supporters. The election has seemingly thrown Mr. Ahmadinejad onto the defensiveBBCtrending: Iran food aid backfires in 'shame'

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-26076612



CULTURE BLENDhttp://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/16/youth-in-iran-inside-and-out/ Islamic strictures met Persian love of pleasure in a Tehran shop in 2005 when a head scarf was pulled back to show some hair


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