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1. Successive Sets Involved in Customer Decision Making
3. Product Differentiation Product form
5. Defining Associations Points-of-difference (PODs)
Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand Points-of-parity (POPs)
Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands
6. Points-of-Parity Points-of-parity (POPs) are associations that are not necessarily
unique to the brand but may in fact be shared with other brands.
These 2 types of associations
1) Category points-of-parity
Consumers view as essential to be a legitimate and credible offering within a certain product or service category.
They represent necessary conditions but not necessarily sufficient for brand choice.
Designed to negate competitors points-of-difference.
7. Points-of-Parity Versus Points-of-Difference
To achieve a point-of-parity on a particular attribute or benefit, a sufficient number of consumers must believe that the brand is good enough on that dimension
There is a zone or range of tolerance or acceptance with points-of-parity
The brand does not literally have to be seen as equal to competitors, but consumers must feel that the brand does well enough on that particular attribute or benefit
With points-of-differences, the brand must demonstrate clear superiority
Often the key to positioning is not so much as achieving a point-of-difference as in achieving points-of-parity
8. Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs Relevance
9. Establishing Category Membership Often marketers must inform consumers of a brands category membership.
With the introduction of new products, especially when the category membership is not apparent.
Brands are sometimes affiliated with categories in which they do not hold membership.
The preferred approach to positioning is to inform consumers of a brands membership before stating its point-of-difference.
There are three ways to convey a brands category membership:
Announcing category benefits.
Comparing to exemplars
Relying on the product descriptor .
10. Deliverability Criteria for PODs Feasibility
11. Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits Low-price vs. High quality
Taste vs. Low calories
Nutritious vs. Good tasting
Efficacious vs. Mild Powerful vs. Safe
Strong vs. Refined
Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive
Varied vs. Simple
12. Addressing Negatively Correlated PODs and POPs Present separately
Leverage equity of another entity
Redefine the relationship
13. Criterias for POD Decide at which level (s) to anchor the brands points-of-differences
At the lowest level are the brand attributes.
At the next level are the brands benefits.
At the top level are the brands values.
Research has shown that brands can sometimes be successfully differentiated on seemingly irrelevant attributes if consumers infer the proper benefit.
14. Value Propositions Perdue Chicken
More tender golden chicken at a moderate premium price
A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price
15. Positioning diamond
18. Writing a Positioning Statement