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Successive Sets Involved in Customer Decision Making. Total Set. Awareness Set. Consideration Set. Choice Set. Decision. Philips LG Samsung Sansui Onida Videocon Sony BPL Hitachi Akai National Aiwa. LG Samsung Sansui Onida Videocon Sony BPL Akai Aiwa. LG Samsung

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successive sets involved in customer decision making
Successive Sets Involved in Customer Decision Making

Total

Set

Awareness

Set

Consideration

Set

Choice

Set

Decision

Philips

LG

Samsung

Sansui

Onida

Videocon

Sony

BPL

Hitachi

Akai

National

Aiwa

LG

Samsung

Sansui

Onida

Videocon

Sony

BPL

Akai

Aiwa

LG

Samsung

Sansui

Onida

Videocon

Aiwa

Sansui

Onida

Videocon

?

FISHBEIN MULTI-ATTRIBUTE MODEL FOR BUYING

differentiation strategies
Differentiation Strategies
  • Product
  • Service
  • Personnel
  • Channel
  • Image
product differentiation
Product form

Features

Performance

Conformance

Durability

Reliability

Reparability

Style

Design

Ordering ease

Delivery

Installation

Customer training

Customer consulting

Maintenance

Product Differentiation
positioning
Positioning

Act of designing the company’s

offering and image to occupy

a distinctive place in the mind of

the target market.

defining associations
Points-of-difference (PODs)

Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand

Points-of-parity (POPs)

Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands

Defining Associations
points of parity
Points-of-Parity

Points-of-parity (POPs) are associations that are not necessarily

unique to the brand but may in fact be shared with other brands.

These 2 types of associations

1) Category points-of-parity

  • Consumers view as essential to be a legitimate and credible offering within a certain product or service category.
  • They represent necessary conditions but not necessarily sufficient for brand choice.
  • Competitive points-of-parity

Designed to negate competitors’ points-of-difference.

points of parity versus points of difference
Points-of-Parity Versus Points-of-Difference
  • To achieve a point-of-parity on a particular attribute or benefit, a sufficient number of consumers must believe that the brand is “good enough” on that dimension
  • There is a “zone” or “range of tolerance or acceptance” with points-of-parity
  • The brand does not literally have to be seen as equal to competitors, but consumers must feel that the brand does well enough on that particular attribute or benefit
  • With points-of-differences, the brand must demonstrate clear superiority
  • Often the key to positioning is not so much as achieving a point-of-difference as in achieving points-of-parity
consumer desirability criteria for pods
Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs
  • Relevance
  • Distinctiveness
  • Believability
establishing category membership
Establishing Category Membership
  • Often marketers must inform consumers of a brand’s category membership.
  • With the introduction of new products, especially when the category membership is not apparent.
  • Brands are sometimes affiliated with categories in which they do not hold membership.
  • The preferred approach to positioning is to inform consumers of a brand’s membership before stating its point-of-difference.
  • There are three ways to convey a brand’s category membership:
    • Announcing category benefits.
    • Comparing to exemplars
    • Relying on the product descriptor .
deliverability criteria for pods
Deliverability Criteria for PODs
  • Feasibility
  • Communicability
  • Sustainability
examples of negatively correlated attributes and benefits
Low-price vs. High quality

Taste vs. Low calories

Nutritious vs. Good tasting

Efficacious vs. Mild

Powerful vs. Safe

Strong vs. Refined

Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive

Varied vs. Simple

Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits
addressing negatively correlated pods and pops
Addressing Negatively Correlated PODs and POPs
  • Present separately
  • Leverage equity of another entity
  • Redefine the relationship
criterias for pod
Criterias for POD
  • Decide at which level (s) to anchor the brand’s points-of-differences
      • At the lowest level are the brand attributes.
      • At the next level are the brand’s benefits.
      • At the top level are the brand’s values.
  • Research has shown that brands can sometimes be successfully differentiated on seemingly irrelevant attributes if consumers infer the proper benefit.
value propositions
Value Propositions
  • Perdue Chicken
    • More tender golden chicken at a moderate premium price
  • Domino’s
    • A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price
positioning diamond
Positioning diamond

Against

whom?

Why me?

For Whom?

What Am I?

  • Establish category to associate and compare with
  • Identify the essential difference
slide16

POSITIONING

LOW PRICE

  • IDLI
    • VEG SANDWICH
  • SAMOSA

LOW

NUTRITION

HIGH

NUTRITION

  • OATS
    • B.FAST CEREALS

HIGH PRICE

slide17

POSITIONING

SOFT ON HANDS

  • ARIEL
  • SURF
  • HENKO

POOR

CLEANSER

SUPERIOR

CLEANSER

  • RIN
    • WHEEL
  • NIRMA

ROUGH ON HANDS

writing a positioning statement
Writing a Positioning Statement

Mountain Dew:

To young, active

soft-drink consumers who have

little time for sleep, Mountain Dew

is the soft drink that gives you

more energy than any other brand

because it has the

highest level of caffeine.

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