Successive Sets Involved in Customer Decision Making
FISHBEIN MULTI-ATTRIBUTE MODEL FOR BUYING
Act of designing the company’s
offering and image to occupy
a distinctive place in the mind of
the target market.
Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand
Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands
Points-of-parity (POPs) are associations that are not necessarily
unique to the brand but may in fact be shared with other brands.
These 2 types of associations
1) Category points-of-parity
Points-of-Parity Versus Points-of-Difference
- To achieve a point-of-parity on a particular attribute or benefit, a sufficient number of consumers must believe that the brand is “good enough” on that dimension
- There is a “zone” or “range of tolerance or acceptance” with points-of-parity
- The brand does not literally have to be seen as equal to competitors, but consumers must feel that the brand does well enough on that particular attribute or benefit
- With points-of-differences, the brand must demonstrate clear superiority
- Often the key to positioning is not so much as achieving a point-of-difference as in achieving points-of-parity
Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs
Establishing Category Membership
- Often marketers must inform consumers of a brand’s category membership.
- With the introduction of new products, especially when the category membership is not apparent.
- Brands are sometimes affiliated with categories in which they do not hold membership.
- The preferred approach to positioning is to inform consumers of a brand’s membership before stating its point-of-difference.
- There are three ways to convey a brand’s category membership:
- Announcing category benefits.
- Comparing to exemplars
- Relying on the product descriptor .
Deliverability Criteria for PODs
Low-price vs. High quality
Taste vs. Low calories
Nutritious vs. Good tasting
Efficacious vs. Mild
Powerful vs. Safe
Strong vs. Refined
Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive
Varied vs. Simple
Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits
Addressing Negatively Correlated PODs and POPs
- Present separately
- Leverage equity of another entity
- Redefine the relationship
Criterias for POD
Research has shown that brands can sometimes be successfully differentiated on seemingly irrelevant attributes if consumers infer the proper benefit.
- Decide at which level (s) to anchor the brand’s points-of-differences
- At the lowest level are the brand attributes.
- At the next level are the brand’s benefits.
- At the top level are the brand’s values.
- Perdue Chicken
- More tender golden chicken at a moderate premium price
- A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price
What Am I?
- Establish category to associate and compare with
- Identify the essential difference
SOFT ON HANDS
ROUGH ON HANDS
Writing a Positioning Statement
To young, active
soft-drink consumers who have
little time for sleep, Mountain Dew
is the soft drink that gives you
more energy than any other brand
because it has the
highest level of caffeine.