Just-in-Time Lecture. www.pitt.edu/~super/. China Earthquake: 12 May 2008. Mission Statement. The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide. Mission Statement.
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China Earthquake: 12 May 2008
What are the Disaster Supercourse & JIT lecture?
What is the Disaster Supercourse?
What is a JIT lecture?
information about the China
earthquake, 12 May 2008
Chinese to be prepared for primary &
secondary prevention of consequences of
a natural hazard to a disaster?
What is the Earthquake?
The shaking of earth caused by waves moving on and below the earth's surface and causing: surface faulting, tremors vibration, liquefaction, landslides, aftershocks and/or tsunamis.
How Earthquake Happens?
outer layer push sides of
slips suddenly, releasing
energy in waves that travel
through the earth's CRUST
& cause the shaking that we
Feel during an earthquake.
Earthquake Strength Measures
I) Magnitude & II) Intensity
Earthquake Strength Measures
I) Magnitude & II) Intensity
Magnitude versus Intensity
a whole, while intensity refers to the effects of an
earthquake at a particular site.
intensity is usually strongest close to the epicenter
& is weaker the farther a site is from the epicenter.
its public health consequences than its magnitude.
Public Health Consequences
Please see the following addresses for above title:
The most populous country
3rd largest country
5 autonomous regions
2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong & Macau)
56 ethnic groups:
91.6% Han people
Peoples Republic of China
World’s economic superpower
Fastest-growing nation for the past 25 years
Average annual GDP growth rate above 10%
Economic Development in China
Street clinics – primary health care
District hospitals – secondary care
City hospitals – tertiary care
Village clinics – primary care
Township hospitals – secondary care
Country hospitals – tertiary care
Health System Structure in China
Natural Hazards in China
Area 485,000 km²
Population (2004) 87,250,000 (3rd)
Density 180 /km² (22nd)
Magnitude: 7.9 Richter scale
Local earthquake time: 14.48 Beijing-time
Location: 30.986°N, 103.364°E
Depth: 19 km (11.8 miles)
West Sichuan Earthquake, 12th May 2008
Motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin
4-5 Richter scale: 105 aftershocks
> 5 Richter scale: 54 aftershocks
Toppled houses: 70,000
Source: China Seismological Bureau
Difficult access by land due to extensive damage to physical infrastructure
Constrained access by air due to heavy rains also
Three-days period of national mourning
The Chinese National Flag and Regional Flags of Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR were raised at half mast.
Source: OCHA reports
Sichuan Property Toll May Top 190 Billion Yuan
According to insurance experts: huge property losses from the disaster but modest insurance claims.
Irrigation systems for 100,000 hectares of paddy fields
> 50,000 greenhouses
7.3 million square meters of livestock barns
Livelihoods of many of affected people is highly dependent on agriculture
Vulnerable to food insecurity
Loss of cereal stocks
Damaged agriculture production
Impaired income generation
Number of damaged/collapsed: >15,000,000
Building earthquake resistant structures makes good economic sense: 3-5% for typical buildings
Unknown situation of 280 giant pandas in Wolong National Nature Reserve
12% of dead were students and their teachers
Many Schools Collapsed
Closed or locked Emergency exits
Source: Reuters Foundation Date: 24 May 2008
The world just passed a 2-years global campaign of Safe Schools
The 2006-7 Global campaign focused on promoting the safety of school buildings & mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction (DRR) into school curricula or at least school activities.
How are safe the schools in your community?
Treating The Injured
Communicable Disease Surveillance & Control
Ensuring Safe Water And Food Supply
Immediate & Long-term Mental Health & Psychosocial Support
Reconstruction Of Health Care System In The Affected Areas
Public Health Priorities
> 3.3 million tents
Garbage Treatment Facilities & Sewage Treatment Facilities
Chemical proof protective clothing, Shoes and masks
Radiation detector (X ray and Y ray survey meter, Personal dosimeter)
Medical Instruments like ECG, Operational Kits, etc
Medication for infectious disease
Source: UNOCHA situation report NO 6, 7 & 8
Deployment of public health experts to the field, including
Mental health & Psychosocial support personnel
Public Health Response (as of 21st May)
At least 5,498 children have been left alone in Sichuan Province's quake zone, either because they have been orphaned or their parents cannot be located
About 4,800 elderly people left alone due to death of their family or they have been separated from all their relatives
32 radioactive sources in affected area
Safely shut down of all nuclear facilities after the quake
No leakage of radioactive substance
Health system responsibility:
Proactive approach to health consequences of radioactive exposure
Collaborate with MEP to make ensure of no radioactive leakage
30 cm movement of China's largest earth-rock dam due to earthquake
400 damaged dams with possible threat to downstream people
26 hours lasting fire
Evacuation of 900 residents due to fears of tank cars explosion
Creating natural dams by moved down rocks into rivers
Formation of 21 lakes throughout the basin
Dangers due to earthquake-created dams:
Instability of the piles of rubble
Bursting the dam by another quake
Downstream floods by cascade of water
Evacuation of thousands of people from Beichuan
Disaster response and relief
Disaster mitigation and prevention
Disaster Risk Management
Strategic shift from managing a disastrous event to more preventive and proactive approaches!!
The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development !
A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
What is the Hazard?
The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.
Non-resistant house & school building
The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards & vulnerable conditions.
Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability
A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
A disaster is a function of the risk process.
It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk.
What is a Disaster?
Maybe Sichuan was not able to modify the hazard part of the earthquake risk model, and predict it precisely, BUT they could assess their vulnerability conditions and reduced them!
This has been the same experience in Bam & Kashmir, Yogyakarta !
Let’s teach the communities right now !
Risk awareness & Knowledge development including education, training, research and information are of the important fields of action for Disaster Risk Reduction!
water, food, medicine or shelter.
people victims of disaster.
World Disaster Report 2005 – IFRC/RCS
What we should do/do not before,
during & after the earthquake?
Please read carefully at:
So, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale is a big earthquake, but not necessarily equal to a disaster. It is just movement of the earth crust. Our vulnerability has changed it to a disaster!!
We wish to express our warm thanks to GDHNet faculties and all groups that contributed their valuable materials.