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Immune prophylaxis and Immunotherapy. Immune prophylaxis. I. Introduction. The last known person in the world to have a natural case of smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC In 1980, WHO announced that smallpox has been eradicated in the world.

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slide4

The last known person in the world to have a natural case of smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC

  • In 1980, WHO announced that smallpox has been eradicated in the world.
iii artificial active immunization
III. Artificial active immunization
  • Antigen:Vaccine or Toxoid
  • inactivated vaccine (Dead vaccine )
  • Live-attenuated vaccine
  • Toxoid
  • Recombinant Vaccine:HBsAg
agents used in active immunization
Agents used in active immunization
  • The agent used for artificial active immunization is called vaccine.
  • inactivated vaccine (Dead vaccine )

Standard strain of a microbe is killed and severed as an immunogen.

For example: cholera vaccine

Japanese encephalitis vaccine

rabies vaccine

typhoid vaccine

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Agents used in active immunization

  • 2. Live-attenuated vaccine
  • It is more effective than dead vaccine
  • I.E:Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine;Measles virus vaccine;Polio virus vaccine (oral);Typhoid vaccine (oral live attenuated bacteria)
3 toxoid
3. Toxoid
  • Exotoxin can be converted into nontoxic but still immunogenic preparations called toxoid.
  • Examples:Diphtheria toxoid, Tetanus toxoid
iv artificial passive immunization
IV. Artificial passive immunization
  • Abs:Antitoxin,Human Ig(IMIG,IVIG,Specific Ig,McAb)
  • Cytokines(IL-2, IFN, CSF)
  • Cells(LAK,TIL).
active immunization passive immunization
Active immunization Passive immunization

Comparison between active and passive immunization

Administration Ag (vaccines, toxoid) Ab (antitoxin, -

globulin)

Production of slowly immediately

immunity

Duration of long (from several short (2 weeks to

immunity months to years) months)

Usage immunoprophylaxis emergency

prophylaxis

and therapy

v adjuvant
V. Adjuvant
  • A substance that, when mixed with an immunogen, enhances the immune response against the immunogen.
  • Alum
vi planned immunization
VI. Planned immunization
  • A rational program of immunization against infectious diseases has been committed in children worldwide when many of the most damaging and preventable infections normally appear.
  • The program of childhood immunization is called planned immunization.
planned immunization schedule in china

Age

Type of vaccine

Primary

Immunization

Birth

BCG vaccine, HBV vaccine (1st)

1 month

HBV vaccine (2nd)

2 months

Poliovirus vaccine (1st)

3 months

Poliovirus vaccine (2nd), DTP (1st)

4 months

Poliovirus vaccine (3rd), DTP (2nd)

5 months

DTP (3rd)

6 months

HBV (3rd), Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine

8 months

Measles virus vaccine

1 year

Japanese encephalitis vaccine (1st and 2nd)

Booster/

reimmunization

1.5 years

DTP, Measles virus vaccine, Poliovirus vaccine, Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine

2 years

Japanese encephalitis vaccine

3 years

Japanese encephalitis vaccine

4 years

Poliovirus vaccine

5 years

DTP, Measles virus vaccine, BCG vaccine, Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine

Planned immunization schedule in China
vii development of novel vaccines
VII. Development of novel vaccines
  • Subunit vaccine
  • These vaccines are in use which make use of antigens either purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA technology.
  • e.g. HBV vaccine (HBsAg)
genetic engineering vaccine
Genetic engineering vaccine
  • Recombinant antigen vaccine
  • Recombinant vector vaccine
  • DNA vaccine
  • Transgenic plant vaccine
viii challenge of vaccines
VIII. Challenge of vaccines

HIV

HCV

TB

Malaria

ii molecular immunotherapy
II. Molecular Immunotherapy

1. Molecular Vaccine

  • Synthetic peptide vaccine
  • Recombinant vector vaccine
  • DNA vaccine

used as treatment of tumor and infection

ii molecular immunotherapy1
II. Molecular Immunotherapy

2. Antibody-polyclonal Ab

  • antitoxic serum
  • placental gamma-globulin
  • antibacterial immune serum
  • antiviral immune serum
  • anti-lymphocyte gamma-globulin, ALG
ii molecular immunotherapy2
II. Molecular Immunotherapy

2. Antibody-Monoclonal antibody, mAb

  • mAb against surface membrane molecules on lymphocytes:CD3,CD20,
  • mAb against cytokines:TNF
  • mAb-directed therapy

mAb coupled to isotopes, drugs, toxins

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Application of Ab in vitro: elimination of cancer cells in bone marrow or T cells to prevention GVHD

slide34

Examples of tumor antigens that have been targeted by monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

ii molecular immunotherapy3
II. Molecular Immunotherapy

2. Antibody-Genetic engineering Ab

  • Chimeric Ab
  • Humanized Ab (CDR-grafted Ab)
  • Single chain Ab
  • Bispecific Ab
ii molecular immunotherapy4
II. Molecular Immunotherapy

3. Cytokines and their antagonists

  • Cytokine supplement and addition therapy

IFN, IL-2, CSF

  • Cytokine blockade and suppression

anti-TNF IL-1Ra sIL-1R

iii cellular immunotherapy
III. Cellular Immunotherapy
  • Cellular Vaccine
  • Tumor cellular vaccine
  • Gene-modified cancer vaccine
  • APC vaccine
iii cellular immunotherapy1
III. Cellular Immunotherapy

2. Adoptive immunotherapy

  • TIL
  • LAK(CIK)

3. Stem cell transplantation

  • Bone marrow
  • Peripheral blood
  • Umbilical blood
vi biological response modifier and immunosuppressive agent
VI. Biological response modifier and immunosuppressive agent

1. Biological response modifier(BRM)

A variety of agents that stimulate the immune response non-specifically are called biological response modifier.

  • Microorganism products: BCG, corynebacterium parvum (CP), polysaccharide
  • Synthetic molecules:polyI:C
  • CK
  • Hormones:Thymosin, Thymopoietin
immunosuppressive agents
Immunosuppressive agents

1. Chemicals

Glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, azothioprine,etc.

2. Microorganism products

Cyclosporin, FK506, rapamycin

summary
Summary
  • Classification of immunoprophylaxis and their biological materials
  • Classification of immunotherapy and their biological materials
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