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Immune prophylaxis and Immunotherapy. Immune prophylaxis. I. Introduction. The last known person in the world to have a natural case of smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC In 1980, WHO announced that smallpox has been eradicated in the world.

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Immune prophylaxis and immunotherapy

Immune prophylaxis and Immunotherapy





Ii essential requirements of vaccine
II. Essential requirements of vaccine smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC


Iii artificial active immunization
III. Artificial active immunization smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC

  • Antigen:Vaccine or Toxoid

  • inactivated vaccine (Dead vaccine )

  • Live-attenuated vaccine

  • Toxoid

  • Recombinant Vaccine:HBsAg


Agents used in active immunization
Agents used in active immunization smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC

  • The agent used for artificial active immunization is called vaccine.

  • inactivated vaccine (Dead vaccine )

    Standard strain of a microbe is killed and severed as an immunogen.

    For example: cholera vaccine

    Japanese encephalitis vaccine

    rabies vaccine

    typhoid vaccine


Agents used in active immunization smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC

  • 2. Live-attenuated vaccine

  • It is more effective than dead vaccine

  • I.E:Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine;Measles virus vaccine;Polio virus vaccine (oral);Typhoid vaccine (oral live attenuated bacteria)


Tuberculin skin test
Tuberculin Skin Test smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC

  • A tuberculin skin test is done to see if you have ever had tuberculosis (TB).


Live vaccine dead vaccine
Live vaccine dead vaccine smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC

Comparison between live and dead vaccines

Route of administration imitating natural injecting

infection subcutaneously

Doses of administration small large

Times of administration once twice or more

Side effect slight severe

Duration of immunity long short

3~5 years several months~1 year

Mutation possible impossible

Preservation of vaccine at 4C easy to preserve

or lyophilization


3 toxoid
3 smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC. Toxoid

  • Exotoxin can be converted into nontoxic but still immunogenic preparations called toxoid.

  • Examples:Diphtheria toxoid, Tetanus toxoid


Iv artificial passive immunization
IV. Artificial passive immunization smallpox. Variola minor in 23-year-old Ali Maow Maalin, Merka, Somalia CDC

  • Abs:Antitoxin,Human Ig(IMIG,IVIG,Specific Ig,McAb)

  • Cytokines(IL-2, IFN, CSF)

  • Cells(LAK,TIL).


Active immunization passive immunization
Active immunization Passive immunization

Comparison between active and passive immunization

Administration Ag (vaccines, toxoid) Ab (antitoxin, -globulin)

Production of slowly immediately

immunity

Duration of long (from several short (2 weeks to

immunity months to years) months)

Usage immunoprophylaxis emergency prophylaxis

and therapy


V adjuvant
V. Adjuvant immunization

  • A substance that, when mixed with an immunogen, enhances the immune response against the immunogen.


Vi planned immunization
VI. Planned immunization immunization

  • A rational program of immunization against infectious diseases has been committed in children worldwide when many of the most damaging and preventable infections normally appear.

  • The program of childhood immunization is called planned immunization.


Planned immunization schedule in china

Age immunization

Type of vaccine

Primary

Immunization

Birth

BCG vaccine, HBV vaccine (1st)

1 month

HBV vaccine (2nd)

2 months

Poliovirus vaccine (1st)

3 months

Poliovirus vaccine (2nd), DTP (1st)

4 months

Poliovirus vaccine (3rd), DTP (2nd)

5 months

DTP (3rd)

6 months

HBV (3rd), Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine

8 months

Measles virus vaccine

1 year

Japanese encephalitis vaccine (1st and 2nd)

Booster/

reimmunization

1.5 years

DTP, Measles virus vaccine, Poliovirus vaccine, Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine

2 years

Japanese encephalitis vaccine

3 years

Japanese encephalitis vaccine

4 years

Poliovirus vaccine

5 years

DTP, Measles virus vaccine, BCG vaccine, Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine

Planned immunization schedule in China


Vii development of novel vaccines
VII. Development of novel vaccines immunization

  • Subunit vaccine

  • These vaccines are in use which make use of antigens either purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA technology.

  • e.g. HBV vaccine (HBsAg)


Conjugate vaccine
Conjugate vaccine immunization

  • These vaccines are obtained by conjugating the purified polysaccharides (bacterial capsular polysaccharides) to carrier proteins such as diphtheria toxoid.


Synthetic peptide vaccine
Synthetic peptide vaccine immunization

  • Small antigens can be made synthetically. e.g. HBs vaccine

  • Synthetic B-and T-cell epitopes can be combined in various ways to optimize the resulting immune response.


Genetic engineering vaccine
Genetic engineering vaccine immunization

  • Recombinant antigen vaccine

  • Recombinant vector vaccine

  • DNA vaccine

  • Transgenic plant vaccine



Preventative vaccine
Preventative Vaccine immunization


Therapeutic vaccine
Therapeutic Vaccine immunization


Viii challenge of vaccines
VIII. Challenge of vaccines immunization

HIV

HCV

TB

Malaria


Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy immunization



Ii molecular immunotherapy
II. Molecular Immunotherapy immunization

1. Molecular Vaccine

  • Synthetic peptide vaccine

  • Recombinant vector vaccine

  • DNA vaccine

    used as treatment of tumor and infection


Ii molecular immunotherapy1
II. Molecular Immunotherapy immunization

2. Antibody-polyclonal Ab

  • antitoxic serum

  • placental gamma-globulin

  • antibacterial immune serum

  • antiviral immune serum

  • anti-lymphocyte gamma-globulin, ALG


Ii molecular immunotherapy2
II. Molecular Immunotherapy immunization

2. Antibody-Monoclonal antibody, mAb

  • mAb against surface membrane molecules on lymphocytes:CD3

  • mAb against cytokines:TNF

  • mAb-directed therapy

    mAb coupled to isotopes, drugs, toxins


Application of Ab in vitro: elimination of cancer cells in bone marrow or T cells to prevention GVHD


Examples of tumor antigens that have been targeted by monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.


Ii molecular immunotherapy3
II. Molecular Immunotherapy monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

2. Antibody-Genetic engineering Ab

  • Chimeric Ab

  • Humanized Ab (CDR-grafted Ab)

  • Single chain Ab

  • Bispecific Ab


Ii molecular immunotherapy4
II. Molecular Immunotherapy monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

3. Cytokines and their antagonists

  • Cytokine supplement and addition therapy

    IFN, IL-2, CSF

  • Cytokine blockade and suppression

    anti-TNF IL-1Ra sIL-1R


Iii cellular immunotherapy
III. Cellular Immunotherapy monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

  • Cellular Vaccine

  • Tumor cellular vaccine

  • Gene-modified cancer vaccine

  • APC vaccine


Iii cellular immunotherapy1
III. Cellular Immunotherapy monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

2. Adoptive immunotherapy

  • TIL

  • LAK(CIK)

    3. Stem cell transplantation

  • Bone marrow

  • Peripheral blood

  • Umbilical blood


Vi biological response modifier and immunosuppressive agent
VI. Biological response modifier and immunosuppressive agent monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

1. Biological response modifier(BRM)

A variety of agents that stimulate the immune response non-specifically are called biological response modifier.

  • Microorganism products: BCG, corynebacterium parvum (CP), polysaccharide

  • Synthetic molecules:polyI:C

  • CK

  • Hormones:Thymosin, Thymopoietin


Immunosuppressive agents
Immunosuppressive agents monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

1. Chemicals

Glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, azothioprine,etc.


Immunosuppressive agents1
Immunosuppressive agents monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

2. Microorganism products

Cyclosporin, FK506, rapamycin


Summary
Summary monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

  • Classification of immunoprophylaxis and their biological materials

  • Classification of immunotherapy and their biological materials


Thank you for your attention! monoclonal antibodies in therapeutic trials.

[email protected]


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