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The Age of Exploration. Exploration and expansion. Motives and Means A. European Exploration 1. Portugal 2. Spain 3. Dutch 4. England 5. France . Exploration and expansion. Motives Marco Polo visits Kublai Khan, writes The Travels, describing exotic East experience.

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The age of exploration

The Age of Exploration

Exploration and expansion


Exploration and expansion

  • Motives and Means

    • A. European Exploration

      • 1. Portugal

      • 2. Spain

      • 3. Dutch

      • 4. England

      • 5. France

Exploration and expansion


Exploration and expansion1

  • Motives

    • Marco Polo visits Kublai Khan, writes The Travels, describing exotic East experience.

    • Conquests of Ottoman Turks leads to travels by sea

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  • Five Motives for Exploration

    • Expand Trade

    • Search for spices and gold

    • Religious zeal-introduce Catholic Faith

    • Convert natives to Christianity

    • The 3 G’s—God, Glory, Gold (religion, fame, fortune)

Exploration and expansion


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Exploration and expansion


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  • 4. Vasco de Gama-sailed around Cape of Good Hope and cut across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

  • 5. Portuguese destroy Muslim shipping and control spice trade.

  • 6. Admiral Afonso-set up trading

    port at Goa.

    7. Melaka-thriving port for spice

    trade.

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  • Voyages to The Americas across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • 1. Spanish sail west across the Atlantic to reach spice trade.

    • 2. Portuguese sail east through Indian Ocean to reach spice trade

Exploration and expansion


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  • Voyages of Columbus across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • Italian explorer sponsored by Spanish Queen Isabella.

    • Reached Caribbean and Honduras-called it the Indies

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  • A Line of Demarcation across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • Treaty of Tordesillas 1494- gave Portugal control of the trade routes around Africa, Spain had rights to the Americas

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Treaty of across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.Tordesillas

Exploration and expansion


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  • Race to the Americas across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • John Cabot-explored New England coast line of the Americas

    • Amerigo Vespucci-accompanied Pedro Cabral on voyages to South America

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The Spanish Empire across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

  • Spanish Explorers were called Conquistadors

    • Hernan Cortes-took Aztec empire in 3 years

    • Francisco Pizarro-controlled Incan empire

    • Spanish take control of Latin America in 30 years

    • Portuguese take Brazil due to line of demarcation

    • 1535 colonial governments set up in Americas

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  • The Spanish Empire across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • Native Americans declared subjects by Queen Isabella

    • Granted the Spanish encomienda, the right to use Native Americans as laborers.

    • Spanish did not protect Native Americans as directed by Queen

    • Native Americans put to work on plantations and mines

Exploration and expansion


Exploration and expanison

The Spanish Empire across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

  • Native Americans begin to die due to forced labor, starvation and disease.

  • Europeans diseases: smallpox, measles, and typhus.

  • Hispaniola had population of 250,000 when Columbus arrived

  • 1538 only 500 Native Americans alive

  • Mexico : Population went from 25 million(1519) to 1 million (1630)

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  • The Spanish Empire across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • Catholics contribute to conquest by converting and baptizing natives

    • Churches, schools, hospitals built. Represent European society

    • Native American traditions replaced with European systems of Religion, language, culture, and government

Exploration and expansion


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  • Economic Impact and Competition across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • Aztecs viewed conquerers as greedy pigs who longed for gold.

    • Colonists began to establish plantations and ranches to raise sugar, cotton, vanilla, livestock and other new products

    • Potatoes, cocoa, corn and tobacco native to the Americas were shipped to Europe

    • Exchange between old and new worlds became known as the Columbian Exchange

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  • Economic Impact and Competition across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • New Rivals Enter the Scene

      • Spanish establish colonies in the Philippine Islands

      • English settle in India

      • Dutch settle in India, establish the East India Company to compete with English and Portuguese.

      • Dutch settle in America and establish the West India Company to compete with Spanish and Portuguese

      • English eventually crush Dutch empire in the Americas and take over, renaming areas such as New York.

Exploration and expansion


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  • Economic Impact and Competition across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • New Rivals Enter the Scene

      • 1600’s French colonize parts of Canada and Louisiana

      • English settle and founded Virginia and Massachusetts Bay Colonies

      • 1700, English have colonial empire along eastern seaboard of North America

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  • Economic Impact and Competition across Indian Ocean to Asia. Sold spices and made profit of several thousand percent.

    • Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism

      • European nations enter the Commercial Revolution

      • Mercantilism-a set of principals that dominated economic thought during 1600’s

      • Idea behind mercantilism-the prosperity of a nation depended on large supply of gold and silver. The more gold and silver a nation had, the more prosperous the nation was.

      • Balance of Trade is the difference in value between what a nation imports and what a nation exports. Favorable balance shows more exports than imports

Exploration and expansion


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