Establishment clause
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Establishment Clause. Compare the 1 st and 2 nd Great Awakenings. Establishment and Free Exercise Clause often conflict with each other:. In schools, the religion issue is most prevalent If a student raises his hand and asks, “Teacher, can we say an opening prayer before this test?”.

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Establishment Clause

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Establishment Clause

Compare the 1st and 2nd Great Awakenings


Establishment and Free Exercise Clause often conflict with each other:

  • In schools, the religion issue is most prevalent

  • If a student raises his hand and asks, “Teacher, can we say an opening prayer before this test?”


Establishment and Free Exercise Clause often conflict with each other:

  • If the teacher says:

    “Yes!” It looks like establishment of religion.

  • “No!” It is denying a student free exercise.


The Establishment Clause

  • A government cannot promote religion

  • What is the purpose of the Establishment clause?


The Establishment Clause

Governments can:

  • Teach about religions in school

  • Allow voluntary prayer in many examples

  • Transport students to a religious school

  • Read Bible for culture or literacy content


The Establishment Clause

Governments cannot:

  • Set a state religion

  • Government cannot order a prayer

  • Teach religious doctrine in the school

  • Pay seminary teachers

  • Teach creationism


The Supreme Court and the Establishment Clause

  • The Supreme Court has held fast to the rule of strict separation between church and state when issues of prayer in public school are involved.


Establishment Clause - The Free Exercise Clause

  • Congress shall make no law… prohibiting the free exercise thereof (religion)” is designed to prevent the government from interfering with the practice of religion.

  • This freedom is not absolute.

  • Several religious practices have been ruled unconstitutional including:

    • Snake handling

    • Use of illegal drugs

    • polygamy

  • Nonetheless, the Court has made it clear that the government must remain NEUTRAL toward religion.


Establishment Clause – See you at the Pole!

  • Student participation in before-or after-school events, such as “see you at the pole,” is permissible.

  • School officials, acting in an official capacity, may neither discourage nor encourage participation in such as event.


1st vs. 2nd G.A. vs. Civil War Revivals (3rd GA)


1st Great Awakening

  • Emphasize the individual

  • Call back to RELIGION

  • all men are equal,

  • the true value of a man lies in his moral behavior, not his class

  • that all men can be saved


GREAT AWAKENING PART DEUX

  • Growing liberalism starting in the early 1800's

  • Revivals on Southern Frontier

  • Second Great Awakening introduced new sects

  • Second Great Awakening

    • “camp meetings occurred”

    • thousands would become “saved”

  • Revivals stimulated

    • church membership

    • variety of humanitarian reforms


GREAT AWAKENING PART DEUX

  • Evangelicalism became emphasized during the time of the Second Great Awakening

    • A belief in the need for personal conversion (or being "born again")

    • Actively expressing and sharing the gospel

    • A high regard for biblical authority, especially Biblical inerrancy

    • An emphasis on teachings that proclaim the death and resurrection of Jesus.


Idealism in the Second Great Awakening

  • Emotionalism not as high as 1st GA

  • Religion began to influence other ideals such as

    • freedom from cruelty of war

    • discrimination

    • intoxicated drinking

    • slavery

  • There were increased plantation missions held for slaves

  • Methodists and Presbyterians divide on the issue of slavery in 1830's-1840's

  • Idealistic religion on a utopian socialism, moral reform, and other ideas came to Christianity


Important Sects and Ideas

  • Two other sects that were born were Methodists and Baptists

  • Encouraged women to pray aloud in public and denounced both alcohol and slavery

  • Both these sects stressed personal conversion and explored a democratic control of church affairs


Divisiveness Caused by the Second Great Awakening

  • Second Great Awakening widened lines between class and region.

  • This split between North and Southern Faith and ideals in religion

    • considered the first sign of splitting

    • followed by a split in politics and the Union.

  • Protestants encouraged increase in educational learning and also importance of education in every household


More religious movements

  • Unitarianism - emphasized reason as the path to perfection & faith in the individual

  • Transcendentalist - emphasized that truth could be discovered intuitively by observing nature and relating it to one’s own emotional and spiritual experience.

  • Mormons

  • African American Church – Similar to Moses and releasing Jews from Egypt


Second Great Awakening and Abolition

  • Second Great Awakening later affected the Abolitionist Movement

  • “Second Great Awakening now inflamed the hearts of many abolitionists against the sin of slavery.” (Bailey).

  • Supporting abolitionist movement, Protestant beliefs displayed a variety of humanitarian reform

  • Church Attendance decreased later in the later 1800's compared to the ¾ of 23 million Americans living in the country

  • Overview: Religion in the 1800's was greatly influence by the Second Great Awakening, and became more liberal and divided in North and South and Class Status


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