The effects of greenhouse gas limits on electric power system dispatch and operations
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1. The Effects of Greenhouse Gas Limits on Electric Power System Dispatch and Operations. Miaolei Shao ([email protected]) Ward Jewell ([email protected]) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Wichita State University. PSERC Tele-Seminar September 2 nd , 2008. 2.

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1

The Effects of Greenhouse Gas Limits on Electric Power System Dispatch and Operations

Miaolei Shao ([email protected])

Ward Jewell ([email protected])

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Wichita State University

PSERC Tele-Seminar

September 2nd, 2008


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2

Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions & Electric Power Industry

  • United States is the source of 1/4 of the world’s GHG emissions.

  • Electric power industry accounts for 38 percent of the nation’s overall carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and one-third of the overall U.S. GHG emissions.

  • 39 states have or are developing State Action Plans specially targeting GHG emission reductions.

    -- Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)

    -- California Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32)


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3

Electric Power System Features That Impact CO2 Emissions

  • CO2 emission factors by type of fuel

  • Unit thermal efficiency

  • Regional generation mix

  • Electricity demand

  • Transmission constraints


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CO2 Emission Factors (EF) by Type of Fuel (lb CO2/MBtu)

Source: S. Goodman, M. Walker, “Benchmarking air emissions of the 100 largest electric power producers in the united states – 2004”, Apr. 2006


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CO2 Emission Factors (EF) by Type of Fuel (Cont.)

Bus 1

Bus 2

P1 = 400 MW

800 MW Load

G1 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)

400 MW

P2 = 400 MW

Two-bus, two-generator power system

G2 (400 MW gas-fired generation unit)

CO2 emission factor is 215 lbs/Mbtu for coal and 117 lbs/Mbtu for gas.

Heat rate data of 400 MW fossil fired generation units came from “A. J. Wood, B. F. Wollenberg, Power Generation, Operation, and Control, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.”


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Unit thermal Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

One kilowatt hour (kWh) has a thermal equivalent of approximately 3412 Btu.


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Regional Generation Mix & CO2 Emissions

Bus 1

Bus 2

P1 = 400 MW

600 MW Load

G1 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)

400 MW

P2 = 200 MW

Two-bus, two-generator power system

G2 (400 MW gas-fired generation unit)

Bus 1

Bus 2

P1 = 400 MW

600 MW Load

G1 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)

600 MW

P2 = 0 MW

P3 = 200 MW

Two-bus, three-generatorpower system

G2 (400 MW gas-fired generation unit)

G3 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)


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8

Regional Generation Mix & CO2 Emissions (Cont.)

527

450

(G3)

(G2)

(G1)

(G1)


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Electricity Demand & CO2 Emissions

Load L (MW)

800

Load-duration curve

600

400

Hours load equals or exceeds L MW

Bus 2

400 MW Load

600 MW Load

Bus 1

P1 = 400 MW

800 MW Load

G1 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)

400 MW

P2 = 0 MW

P2 = 200 MW

P2 = 400 MW

Two-bus, two-generator power system

G2 (400 MW gas-fired generation unit)


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Electricity Demand & CO2 Emissions (Cont.)

CO2 emission amounts (tons/h)

CO2 emission rates (tons/MWh)


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Transmission Constraints& CO2 Emissions

Bus 1

Bus 2

P1 = 400 MW

600 MW Load

G1 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)

400 MW

P2 = 200 MW

400 MW maximum transmission capability between bus 1 and bus 2

G2 (400 MW gas-fired generation unit)

Bus 1

Bus 2

P1 = 300 MW

600 MW Load

G1 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)

300 MW

P2 = 300 MW

300 MW maximum transmission capability between bus 1 and bus 2

G2 (400 MW gas-fired generation unit)


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Transmission Constraints & CO2 Emissions (Cont.)

Transmission congestion help reduce system CO2 emissions?

450

412

(G2)

(G2)

(G1)

(G1)


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CO2 Emission-incorporated Cost Model

Input-output function

Fuel cost function

CO2 emission cost function

Fuel-emission cost function


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Fossil-fired Generation Units’ Cost Variation

Due to CO2 Emissions

  • Coal price is 1.90 $/MBtu

  • CO2 emission factor of coal is 215 lb/MBtu

  • Gas price is 3.80 $/MBtu

  • CO2 emission factor of gas is 117 lb/MBtu

  • CO2 price is 30 $/ton

Fuel costs

CO2 emission costs

Fuel-emission costs

G2 (400 MW gas-fired generation unit)

G1 (400 MW coal-fired generation unit)


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Breakeven Price of CO2

Coal price is 1.90 $/MBtu

Coal CO2 emission factor is 215 lb/MBtu

Gas CO2 emission factor is 117 lb/MBtu

  • Gas price is 3.8 $/MBtu

  • Breakeven price of CO2 is around 50 $/ton

  • Gas price is 5.7 $/MBtu

  • Breakeven price of CO2 is around 100 $/ton


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CO2 Emission-constrained ac

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

Objective function

Equality constraints

Inequality constraints

Linear Programming

Software used in this research: PowerWorld Simulator


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IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS)

17

  • 24 buses

  • 38 transmission lines and transformers.

  • a total load of 2850 MW

  • a total generation capacity of 3405 MW


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Simulation Cases and Description


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Simulation Results of Case 1

19

70 $/ton

180 $/ton

280 $/ton

  • At CO2 price of 70 $/ton, coal and gas power generation start to shift.

  • At CO2 price of 180 $/ton, gas power generation almost equals coal power generation.

  • At CO2 price of 280 $/ton, major shifting process is finished.

  • CO2 emissions decrease from 928 tons/h at CO2 price of 0 $/ton to 514 tons/h at CO2 price of 280 $/ton, a 44.6% reduction.

  • The system fuel costs increase from 18595 $/h at CO2 price of 0 $/ton to 79255 $/h at CO2 price of 280 $/ton, a 326% increase.


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Simulation Results of Case # 1 (Cont.)

20

70 $/ton

180 $/ton

280 $/ton


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Simulation Results

21

70 $/ton

180 $/ton

280 $/ton

130 $/ton

270 $/ton

410 $/ton

Case # 2

Case # 1


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Simulation Results (Cont.)

22

80 $/ton

180 $/ton

130 $/ton

260 $/ton

Case # 4

Case # 3


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Conclusions

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  • CO2 emissions from electricpower industry are impacted by several power system features; ignoring any of them will incur errors in analysis.

  • CO2 emission-constrained ac OPFis a powerful tool that considers all the features that impact CO2 emissions from electricpower generation.

  • CO2 emission-constrained ac OPF, which can be realized in commercial and educational power system software or developed as stand-alone software, has potential to be utilized for investigating and assessing the effects, including costs and reliability, of GHG limits on electric power industry.

  • Simulation results indicate that the effects of GHG limits on electric power system dispatch and operations are sensitive to several factors such as system load levels, fuel prices etc.

  • In current high gas price situation, it is quite expensive to reduce CO2 emissions by switching from coal power generation to gas power generation.


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Future Research

PSERC Project M21: “Technical and Economic Implications of Greenhouse Gas Regulation in a Transmission Constrained Restructured Electricity Market”

Academic Team Members:

Ward Jewell (lead), Wichita

Shmuel Oren, UC Berkeley

Chen-Ching Liu, University College Dublin

Yishu Chen, UC Merced

Industry Team Members:

Jim Price, CAISO

Mariann Quinn, Duke Energy

Floyd Galvan, Entergy

Mark Sanford, GE

Jay Giri, AREVA

Tongxin Zheng, ISO-NE

Ralph Boroughs, TVA

Robert Wilson, WAPA

Avnaesh Jayantilal, AREVA

Jerry Pell, DOE

Sundar Venkataraman, GE Energy


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Thank You


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