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Translation. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. 4 Components used in Translation. mRNA - the message to be translated into protein. Amino acids - the building blocks that are linked together to form the protein. Ribosomes - the “machines” that carry out translation.

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4 components used in translation

4 Components used in Translation

  • mRNA- the message to be translated into protein.

  • Amino acids- the building blocks that are linked together to form the protein.

  • Ribosomes- the “machines” that carry out translation.


  • tRNA(transfer RNA)- brings an amino acid to the mRNA and ribosome.

    • One end of a tRNA molecule has an anticodon that complements with an mRNA codon.

    • The other end has a specific amino acid.

    • A tRNA molecule with a particular anticodon always carries the same type of amino acid.

How does translation occur

How does translation occur?

  • The ribosome binds to the mRNA molecule.

  • The tRNA with the anticodon that complements the first codon on the mRNA binds to the first site on the ribosome.

  • Another tRNA with the anticodon that complements the second codon on the mRNA binds to the second site on the ribosome.


  • A peptide bond forms between the first two amino acids.

  • The first tRNA leaves, and the ribosome moves along the mRNA to the next codon.

  • The next tRNA brings in the next amino acid, and a peptide bond is formed between this amino acid and the growing amino acid chain.

  • The process continues with the ribosome moving along the mRNA molecule and the amino acids linking together until a STOP codon is reached.

Transcription and translation urls

Transcription and translationURLs


The code of translation

The CODE of translation



mRNA nucleotides are translated in groups of 3 called codons.



Each codon codes for a specific amino acid. 20 different amino acids can be used in different combinations to form a protein.

For example:

mRNA codonamino acid




Amino acid sequence determines the 3 d protein shape

Amino Acid sequence determines the 3-D protein shape

  • Interactions between amino acids cause folding and bending of the chain


    • positive (+) and negative (-) parts of amino acids are attracted to each other.

    • hydrophobic regions are attracted to each other

  • Folding

  • Structure levels structure.swf

How is the amino acid sequence determined

How is the amino acid sequence determined?

  • The mRNA

  • Each codon is a code for one amino acid

    DNA sequence: T A C C G A G A T T C A

    mRNA sequence: A U GG C UC U AA G U

    amino acid sequence: Met -- Ala -- Leu -- Ser

Your turn

Your turn

  • Decoder construction-DNA Bingo

  • Translation exercise (Find the secret message)

  • Genes to proteins-practice worksheet.

    • or

  • Complete the “Translation Practice” worksheet

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