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Chapter 10. Decision Support Systems Section I Only. REVIEW. Information, Decisions and Management. What are the 3 levels of an organization? Are the types of information the same for all levels?

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter10

Decision Support Systems

Section I Only

REVIEW


Information decisions and management

Information, Decisions and Management

  • What are the 3 levels of an organization?

  • Are the types of information the same for all levels?

  • The type of information required by decision makers is directly related to the level of management and the amount of structure in the decision situations.


Levels of management decision making

Levels of Management Decision Making

  • Strategic

    • group of executives develop overall organizational goals, strategies, policies, and objectives as part of a strategic planning process

  • Tactical

    • managers and business professionals in self-directed teams develop short- and medium-range plans, schedules and budgets and specify the policies, procedures and business objectives for their subunits

  • Operational

    • managers or members of self-directed teams develop short-range plans such as weekly production schedules


Information decisions and management1

Information, Decisions and Management

  • What are the 3 types of decisions that take place within an organization?

  • At which level within the organization does each type of decision typically take place?

    • Amount of structure is typically tied to management level

      • Operational

        • more structured

      • Tactical

        • more semi structured

      • Strategic

        • more unstructured


Decision structure

Decision Structure

  • Structured

    • situations where the procedures to follow when a decision is needed can be specified in advance

  • Unstructured

    • decision situations where it is not possible to specify in advance most of the decision procedures to follow

  • Semi structured

    • decision procedures

      that can be

      prespecified, but not

      enough to lead to a

      definite

      recommended

      decision


Attributes of information quality

Attributes of Information Quality

What are the three dimensions of information quality?

  • Time Dimension

  • Content Dimension

  • Form Dimension


Attributes of information quality1

Attributes of Information Quality

  • Timeliness

    • Provided WHEN it is needed

    • Up-to-date when it is provided

    • Provided as often as needed

    • Provided about past, present, and future time periods as necessary


Attributes of information quality2

Attributes of Information Quality

  • Content

    • Free from errors

    • Should be related to the information needs of a specific recipient for a specific situation

    • Provide all the information that is needed

    • Only the information that is needed should be provided

    • Can have a broad or narrow scope, or an internal or external focus

    • Can reveal performance


Attributes of information quality3

Attributes of Information Quality

  • Form

    • Provided in a form that is easy to understand

    • Can be provided in detail or summary form

    • Can be arranged in a predetermined sequence

    • Can be presented in narrative, numeric, graphic, or other forms

    • Can be provided in hard copy, video, or other media


Mis vs dss

MIS vs. DSS

  • What does MIS and DSS stand for?

  • How are MIS and DSS similar?

  • What are some of the difference between MIS and DSS?


Management reporting alternatives

Management Reporting Alternatives

What are the information products that an MIS typically provides?

  • These information products typically take the following forms:

    • Periodic Scheduled Reports

      • Prespecified format

      • Provided on a scheduled basis

    • Exception Reports

      • Produced only when exceptional conditions occur

      • Reduces information overload

    • Demand Reports and Responses

      • Available when demanded

      • Ad hoc

    • Push Reporting

      • Information is sent to a networked PC over the corporate intranet

      • Not specifically requested by the recipient


Online analytical processing olap

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)

  • What does OLAP stand for?

  • What does OLAP allow managers to do?

    Definition:

  • Enables mangers and analysts to interactively examine and manipulate large amounts of detailed and consolidated data from many perspectives

    • Analyze complex relationships to discover patterns, trends, and exception conditions

    • Real-time

    • Figure 10.11, page 330


Olap technology

OLAP Technology


Analytical operations

Analytical Operations

What are three analytical operations discussed in the textbook and in class?

  • Consolidation

    • aggregation of data

  • Drill-down

    • detail data that comprise consolidated data

  • Slice and Dice

    • ability to look at the database from different viewpoints

    • When performed along a time axis, helps analyze trends and find patterns


Database structures continued

Database Structures (continued)

What does a multidimensional database look like?


Geographic information systems gis

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

What is a geographic information system?

Definition:

  • DSS that uses geographic databases to construct and display maps and other graphics displays that support decisions affecting the geographic distribution of people and other resources

  • Special categories of DSS that integrate computer graphics with other DSS features


Geographic information systems gis1

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)


Data visualization systems dvs

Data Visualization Systems (DVS)

What is a data visualization system?

  • Special categories of DSS that integrate computer graphics with other DSS features

  • DVS represent complex data using interactive three-dimensional graphical forms such as charts, graphs, and maps

  • DVS tools help users to interactively sort, subdivide, combine, and organize data while it is in its graphical form

    • Helps discover patterns, links, and anomalies


Data visualization systems dvs1

Data Visualization Systems (DVS)


Using dss

Using DSS

What are the four types of analytical modeling discussed in the textbook and in class?

  • An interactive modeling process

  • Four types of analytical modeling

    • What-if analysis

    • Sensitivity analysis

    • Goal-seeking analysis

    • Optimization analysis


Using dss1

Using DSS

  • What-if Analysis

    • end user makes changes to variables, or relationships among variables, and observes the resulting changes in the values of other variables

  • Sensitivity Analysis

    • A special case of what-if analysis

    • value of only one variable is changed repeatedly and the resulting changes in other variables are observed

    • Typically used when there is uncertainty about the assumptions made in estimating the value of certain key variables


Using dss2

Using DSS

  • Goal-Seeking

    • set a target value (a goal) for a variable and then repeatedly change other variables until the target value is achieved

  • Optimization

    • A more complex extension of goal-seeking

    • goal is to find the optimum value for one or more target variables given certain constraints then one or more other variables are changed repeatedly until the best values for the target variables are discovered


Data mining for decision support

Data Mining for Decision Support

What does data mining allow managers to do?

  • Data mining software analyzes the vast stores of historical business data that have been prepared for analysis in corporate data warehouses

  • Tries to discover patterns, trends, and correlations hidden in the data that can help a company improve its business performance

  • Data mining software may perform regression, decision tree, neural network, cluster detection, or market basket analysis for a business


Using decision support systems continued

Using Decision Support Systems (continued)

  • Figure 10.17 on page 336

    • Data mining software can provide data visualization capabilities to help discover patterns in business data like this analysis of customer demographic information


Market basket analysis mba

Market Basket Analysis (MBA)

What is market basket analysis?

Definition:

  • The purpose is to determine what products customers purchase together with other products


Executive information systems eis

Executive Information Systems (EIS)

What is an executive information system?

Definition:

  • Information systems that provide top executives, managers, analysts, and other knowledge workers with immediate and easy access to information about a firm’s key factors that are critical to accomplishing an organization’s strategic objectives


Executive information systems eis1

Executive Information Systems (EIS)

  • EIS’s combine many of the features of MIS and DSS

  • Originally intended to provide top executives with immediate, easy access to information about the firm’s “critical success factors”

  • Alternative names

    • Enterprise information systems

    • Executive support systems


Features of an eis

Features of an EIS

What are the features of an EIS?

  • Information presented in forms tailored to the preferences of the executives using the system

    • Customizable graphics displays

    • Exception reporting

    • Trend analysis

    • Drill down capability


Enterprise portals and decision support

Enterprise Portals and Decision Support

  • What is a portal?

  • What is an enterprise portal?

    Definition:

  • A Web-based interface and integration of MIS, DSS, EIS, and other technologies that gives all intranet users and selected extranet users access to a variety of internal and external business applications and services


Enterprise portals and decision support1

Enterprise Portals and Decision Support

  • Figure 10.19 on page 340

    • An enterprise information portal

      • Can provide a business professional with a personalized workplace of information sources, administrative and analytical tools, and relevant business applications


Enterprise information portal components

Enterprise Information Portal Components

What are the business benefits of an enterprise information portal?

  • Business benefits of Enterprise Information Portals

    • More specific and selective information

    • Easy access to key corporate intranet website resources

    • Industry and business news

    • Access to company data for stakeholders

    • Less time spent on unproductive surfing


Knowledge management systems

Knowledge Management Systems

What is a knowledge management system?

Definition:

  • The use of information technology to help gather, organize, and share business knowledge within an organization

  • Hypermedia databases that store and disseminate business knowledge

    • May also be called knowledge bases

  • Best practices, policies, business solutions

  • Entered through the enterprise knowledge portal


Enterprise knowledge portals

Enterprise Knowledge Portals

What is an enterprise knowledge portals?

Definition:

  • Entry to corporate intranets that serve as their knowledge management systems

Figure 10-20 on page 341

  • An example of the capabilities and components of an enterprise knowledge portal

    • Emphasizes the use of a Web-based knowledge management system


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