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Anatomy Terminology. Body Regions. Axial Region (down midline of body) Appendicular Region (limbs). REGIONS OF THE BODY. 1. Axial Region ( Goes down midline of the body) a) Head b) Neck c) Trunk (has 3 parts) 1) Thorax (chest area). Above diaphragm. Contains heart and lungs.

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body regions
Body Regions
  • Axial Region (down midline of body)
  • Appendicular Region (limbs)
regions of the body
REGIONS OF THE BODY
  • 1. Axial Region (Goes down midline of the body)
    • a) Head
    • b) Neck
    • c) Trunk (has 3 parts)

1) Thorax (chest area). Above diaphragm. Contains heart and lungs.

        • Pectoral Region (chest)
        • Costal ( rib) margin

2) Abdomen (not called the stomach!). Contains the digestive organs

Lumbar region (low back)

  • Gluteal region (buttocks)

3) Pelvis (area that would be covered by brief underwear) Contains urinary and reproductive organs

Inguinal region (Groin)

regions of the body1
REGIONS OF THE BODY
  • 2. Appendicular Region (limbs)

a) Upper Limbs

1) Axilla (armpit)

2) Arm (Brachium): shoulder to elbow

Antecubital fossa (inside of elbow, where blood is drawn)

3) Forearm (elbow to wrist). Don’t confuse with arm!

4) Wrist

5) Hand: 4 fingers with 3 phalanges each; thumb with 2 phalanges; Pollicis: Thumb

Palmar surface: Palm

regions of the body2
REGIONS OF THE BODY
  • 2. Appendicular Region (limbs)

b) Lower Limbs

1) Thigh (hip to knee). Don’t confuse with leg!

2) Leg (knee to ankle).

Calf (back of the leg)

Popliteal region (behind knee)

Genu: the knee itself

3) Ankle

4) Foot: 5 digits

Hallux: big toe

Plantar surface: sole of foot

body cavities
Body Cavities

Figure 1.8a

body cavities1
Body Cavities

Figure 1.8b

anatomical position
Anatomical Position
  • The body standing erect, facing forward, feet together, toes pointed anteriorly, hands at one’s side, fingers pointing inferiorly, and palms facing forward.
  • Once the body is in this position (or imagined to be in this position,) the positional terms can be used correctly.
anatomical position1
Anatomical Position

Anatomical Position

The person is standing up straight

The palms face anteriorly

The knees, elbow, and neck are straight (not bent)

The toes point anteriorly, but the fingers point inferiorly

Left and Right: yours or the patient’s?

Figure 1.3

positional terms
Positional Terms
  • These are terms used to describe the position of certain structures on the body.
  • Note: These are “relative terms.” This means that these words are usually used in relating the position of one body structure to another. You can’t say, “He is shorter”. You have to say, “He is shorter than John”.
  • Incorrect: the nose is medial
  • Correct: the nose is medial to the ears
positional terms1
Positional Terms
  • Anterior (Ventral)
  • Posterior (Dorsal)
  • Superior
  • Inferior
  • Medial
  • Lateral
  • Superficial
  • Deep
  • Proximal
  • Distal
  • Supine
  • Prone
positional terms2
Positional Terms

Anterior/Ventral: towards the front of the body (includes palms and soles)

Posterior/Dorsal: towards the back of the body

Superior: towards the head

Inferior: towards the feet

Medial (NOT MIDDLE): towards the midline of body

Lateral: away from midline

Varus: inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint.

Valgus: outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint.

positional terms3
Positional Terms

Superficial: Toward the external environment

Deep: Towards the inner body

Proximal: towards the heart

Distal: away from the heart

Supine: Laying on one’s back

Prone: Laying on one’s stomach

body planes
Body Planes

Frontal (Coronal)

Sagittal

Transverse

Para-Sagittal plane

Sagittal plane

body planes and sections
Body Planes and Sections

Frontal (coronal) plane

Lies vertically and divides body or organ into anterior and posterior parts

Sagittal plane

Divides right from left side of body or organ

Midsagittal (median) plane

Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline and divides body into EQUAL right and left sides

Parasagittal plane

Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline and divides body into UNEQUAL right and left sides

Transverse plane

Divides body or organ into superior-inferior parts

banana sectioned into planes
Banana Sectioned into Planes

Transverse plane

Sagittal plane

Frontal (coronal) plane

varus valgus
Varus - Valgus

Genu = Knee

Genu Valgum Genu Varus

varus valgus1
Varus - Valgus
  • Coxa = hip
movement terms
Movement Terms
  • Flexion: to decrease the angle of a joint
  • Extension: to increase the angle of a joint, returning it to anatomical position
  • Hyperextension: extension beyond anatomical position
  • In the foot, there are special terms used instead of flexion/extension:
      • Dorsiflexion: flexion of the ankle joint; to raise the toes up in the air. When you stand on your heels with your toes up in the air, you are dorsiflexing your ankle joints.
      • Plantarflexion: extension of the ankle joint; to point the toes downward. When you stand on your toes, you are plantarflexing your ankle joints.
flexion and extension
Flexion and Extension

Flexion: to decrease the angle of a joint

Extension: to increase the angle of a joint, returning it to anatomical position

Hyperextension: extension beyond anatomical position

flexion and extension1
Flexion and Extension

Flexion: to decrease the angle of a joint

Extension: to increase the angle of a joint, returning it to anatomical position

Hyperextension: extension beyond anatomical position

flexion extension hyperextension
Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension

Hyperextension

Extension

movement terms1
Movement Terms

Internal Rotation (or medial rotation): to rotate in the transverse plane toward the midline of the body

External Rotation (or Lateral Rotation): to rotate in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body.

These two terms are usually used to describe motions of the shoulder or hips.

movement terms2
Movement Terms
  • Abduction: to move a body part away from the midline of the body
  • Adduction: to move a body part toward the midline of the body
  • Circumduction: to move a body part in a circle
  • Rotation: to pivot a body part around an axis, as in shaking the head “no”
movement terms3
Movement Terms

Inversion: to rotate the palms or soles in the frontal plane toward the midline of the body.

Eversion: to rotate the palms or soles in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body.

You invert and evert your hands, but the bones of the ankle don’t move in a single plane. Rather, they move in three planes, so that motion is more properly called supination and pronation.

movements of the hand or foot only
Movements of the Hand or Foot Only

Supination and Pronation are movements in three planes.

  • Supination (tri-plane movement)
    • Inversion
    • Adduction
    • Dorsiflexion (or Flexion in hands)
  • Pronation (tri-plane movement)
    • Eversion
    • Abduction
    • Plantarflexion (or Extension in hands)
pronation and supination
Pronation and Supination

Pronation

Supination

common confusion of positions vs movements
Common Confusion of POSITIONS vs. MOVEMENTS
  • Prone: a POSITION, not a movement; body is lying face down.
  • Pronation: a MOVEMENT; when the palm is turned downward (in Anatomical Position, the palm will face posterior). The foot can also be pronated; the sole turns laterally away from the body. Pronation of the foot is a tri-plane movement of plantarflexion, abduction, and eversion.
  • Supine: a POSITION, not a movement; body is laying on the back.
  • Supination: a MOVEMENT; when the palm is turned upward, like holding a bowl of soup (in Anatomical Position, the palm will face anterior). The foot can also be supinated; the sole turns medially towards the body. Supination of the foot is a tri-plane movement of dorsiflexion, adduction, and inversion.
movement terms4
Movement Terms
  • Protraction – to project a body part anteriorly, such as the shoulders or jaw
  • Retraction – to pull a body part posteriorly
movement terms5
Movement Terms
  • Elevation – lifting a body part superiorly, such as shoulders or jaw.
  • Depression – lowering a body part inferiorly
movement terms6
Movement Terms
  • Opposition – movement of the thumb to touch the tips of other fingers
range of motion
Range Of Motion
  • Range Of Motion (Rom) 
    • The normal range of movement of any body joint. Range of motion also refers to exercises designed to maintain this range and prevent contractures.  
  • Active Range Of Motion
    • is the range through which a joint can move (typically angular, in one degree of freedom), without assistance or resistance.
  • Passive ROM
    • is the range through which a joint can be moved by an external force (e.g., applied by a therapist).
regional terminology
Regional Terminology

Thorax

Pectoral Region

Costal = rib

Abdomen

Pelvis

Inguinal (Groin)

Lumbar region

Gluteal region

Axilla (armpit)

Upper Extremity

  • Arm (Brachium)
    • Cubital fossa
  • Forearm
  • Hand
    • Palmar surface of hand

Lower Extremity

  • Thigh
  • Leg (Calf in back)
    • Popliteal region (behind knee)
  • Foot
    • Plantar surface of foot
joint abbreviations
Joint Abbreviations

MPJ: Metacarpal (or metatarsal) phalangeal joint

joint abbreviations1
Joint Abbreviations

DIPJ

PIPJ

NOTE: The joint at the tip of the thumb is just called the IPJ

IPJ

  • IPJ: Interphalangeal joint
    • DIPJ is the distal IPJ
    • PIPJ is the proximal IPJ
anterior posterior x ray ap view
Anterior-Posterior X-ray (AP view)
  • X-ray beam passes from anterior to posterior.
anterior posterior x ray ap view1
Anterior-Posterior X-ray (AP view)
  • X-ray beam passes from anterior to posterior.
lateral x ray lat view
Lateral X-ray (Lat view)
  • X-ray beam passes from medial to lateral
lateral x ray lat view1
Lateral X-ray (Lat view)
  • X-ray beam passes from medial to lateral
oblique x ray
Oblique X-ray
  • Beam enters at 45° angle; good for identifying fractures.
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