Obsessive compulsive disorder lecture overview
Download
1 / 45

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Lecture Overview - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 319 Views
  • Updated On :

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Lecture Overview. Nature and epidemiology Etiology Empirically-supported treatments Efficacy data Moderator variables Class discussion. Defining Features: Obsessions. Defining Features:Compulsions. Defining Features:Compulsions. Epidemiology of OCD.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Lecture Overview' - lecea


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Obsessive compulsive disorder lecture overview
Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderLecture Overview

  • Nature and epidemiology

  • Etiology

  • Empirically-supported treatments

  • Efficacy data

  • Moderator variables

  • Class discussion





Epidemiology of ocd
Epidemiology of OCD

  • 2.5% lifetime prevalence

  • Prevalence is similar for men and women

  • Onset occurs typically occurs during adolescence or early adulthood

  • Onset is earlier for males than females

  • Tends to be chronic without treatment with periods of waxing and waning of symptoms


Associated disorders
Associated Disorders

  • Depression

  • Other anxiety disorders

  • Sleep disturbance

  • Eating disorders

  • Tourette’s disorder and motor tics


Common obsessions in ocd
Common Obsessions in OCD

Data from Antony et al., (1998).


Common compulsions in ocd
Common Compulsions in OCD

Data from Antony et al., (1998).


Functional classification foa et al 1985
Functional Classification(Foa et al, 1985)

  • Internal fear cues

  • External fear cues

  • Fears of harm or disastrous consequences


Ocd impairment costs
OCD Impairment & Costs

  • Social impairment

    • 62% reported difficulty maintaining a relationship (Calvocoressi, et al., 1995)

    • Instrumental role performance and social functioning more impaired in OCD than general public, depressed, or diabetics. (Koran, et al., 1996)

  • Estimated annual medical costs: 8.2 billion

    • Based on detailed analysis of direct treatment expenses, comorbidity, and mortality (DuPont,, et al., 1995)

  • Occupational impairment & lost wages

    • 40% unemployed due to OC symptoms (Calvocoressi, et al., 1995)

    • Lifetime wages lost: $40 billion (Stein, et al., 1996)


Health care utilization and ocd
Health Care Utilization and OCD

  • High utilization of dermatologist visits relative to the general public or other anxiety disorder groups (Kennedy & Schwab, 1997)

  • 15% of African Americans seen in dermatologist offices had undiagnosed OCD (Friedman et al., 1993)


Pharmacological treatments for ocd
Pharmacological Treatmentsfor OCD

  • Clomipramine*

  • SSRIs

    • Fluoxetine

    • Fluvoxamine*

    • Sertraline


Multicenter trial of fluoxetine
Multicenter Trial of Fluoxetine

Data taken from Tollefson et al (1994). Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 559-567

*NOTE: Response was defined as a 35% or more reduction in Y-BOCS scores.


Multicenter trial of fluoxetine1
Multicenter Trial of Fluoxetine

Data taken from Tollefson et al (1994). Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 559-567.


Treatment effect sizes from 4 large multi center rcts
Treatment Effect Sizes from 4 Large Multi-Center RCTs

N=520

N=355

N=320

N=325

Data taken from Greist et al (1995). Archives of General Psychiatry, 52: 53-60. Effect size calculated from post differences between treatment and placebo


Treatment response rate from 4 large multi center rcts
Treatment Response Rate from 4 Large Multi-Center RCTs

N=520

N=355

N=320

N=325

Data taken from Greist et al (1995). Archives of General Psychiatry, 52: 53-60.


Relapse rates following discontinuation of medication
Relapse Rates Following Discontinuation of Medication

Data taken from Ravizza et al., 1996. Psychopharmacol Bull, 32: 167-73.


Empirically supported psychosocial treatments
Empirically-Supported Psychosocial Treatments

  • Psychosocial Treatments

    • Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP)

    • Cognitive Therapy


Rationale for investigating non drug alternatives
Rationale for Investigating Non-Drug Alternatives

  • Limited proportion of patients who show clinical benefit

  • Level of residual symptoms among treatment responders

  • Troublesome side effects

  • Extremely high relapse rates

  • Role of psychological factors in OCD


Psychological factors implicated in ocd
Psychological Factors Implicated in OCD

  • Cognitive appraisal of intrusive thoughts (Salkovskis, 1985; Rachman, 1997)

    • Overestimation of danger

    • Inflated personal responsibility

    • Thought-action fusion

  • Thought-suppression (Wegner et al, 1987)

  • Cognitive deficits in selective attentionDeficits in inhibiting irrelevant stimuli (particularly internal ones such as intrusive thoughts) (Clayton et al, 1999)


Procedural overview of foa erp treatment protocol
Procedural Overview of Foa ERP Treatment Protocol

  • Information Gathering Phase (2 sessions)

    • Session 1 (2 hrs.)

      • Obtaining info on OCD symptoms

      • History of the problem

      • Defining the disorder

      • Rationale for treatment

      • Overview of treatment Program

      • Teaching patients to Monitor symptoms


Procedural overview of foa erp treatment protocol cont
Procedural Overview of Foa ERP Treatment Protocol Cont.

  • Information Gathering Phase (2 sessions)

    • Session 2 (2 hrs.)

      • Inspection of patient’s self-monitoring

      • Collecting information about obsessions and compulsions

      • Generating the treatment plan

      • Rules for selection of exposure situations

      • Develop clear contract between therapist and patient

      • Teaching patients to Monitor symptoms

      • Homework assignment


Important areas of oc assessment
Important Areas of OC Assessment

  • Obsessions

    • external fear cues

    • internal cues

    • consequences of external and internal cues

  • Avoidance Patterns

    • Passive avoidance

    • Rituals

    • Relationship between avoidance patterns and fear cues


Procedural overview of foa erp treatment protocol cont1
Procedural Overview of Foa ERP Treatment Protocol Cont.

  • Treatment Phase (15 daily sessions, 120 min. each)

    • Format of exposure session

    • Implementation of exposure

    • Homework assignments

    • Comments during exposure sessions

    • Response prevention

      • Rules

      • Return to normal behavior

    • Common difficulties during sessions


Examples of in vivo exposure component
Examples of In Vivo Exposure Component

  • For Washer

    • Session 1: walk with therapist through the building touching doorknobs, holding each for several minutes

    • Session 2: Repeat above and add contact with sweat by having patient touch armpit and inside of shoe

    • Session 3: Repeat above but introduce having patient touch toilet seats

    • Session 4: Repeat above but introduce urine by having patient hold a paper towel dampened in his own urine

    • Session 5: Repeat above but introduce fecal material by having patient hold toilet paper lightly soiled with his own fecal material

    • Sessions 6-15 Daily exposure to the three most fear-provoking activities are repeated.


Examples of in vivo exposure component1
Examples of In Vivo Exposure Component

  • For Checker

    • Session 1: turn the lights on and off once, turn stove on and off once, open and close doors once (leave room immediately without checking)

    • Session 2: Repeat above and add flushing of toilet without looking in the bowl

    • Session 3: Repeat above but introduce opening gate to the basement and allowing daughter to play near the gate

    • Session 4: Repeat above but introduce carrying daughter on concrete floor

    • Session 5: Repeat above but introduce driving on highway without retracing route

    • Sessions 6-15 Daily exposure to the three most fear-provoking activities are repeated.


Rules for response prevention washer
Rules for Response PreventionWasher

  • Patients not permitted to use water on their body

  • Bath powder and deodorants are permitted unless they reduce contamination concerns

  • Shaving is done by electric shaver

  • Supervised showers occur every 3 days for 10-min.

  • Ritualistic washing of certain areas of the body is prohibited

  • Family members supervise adherence to rules while patient is home

  • Violations are reported to therapist

  • In the last few sessions, response prevention requirements are relaxed to permit normal washing


Rules for response prevention checker
Rules for Response PreventionChecker

  • No ritualistic checking is permitted

  • One check (normal checking) is permitted

  • Designated relative or friend supervises response prevention adherence at home

  • Therapist/supervisor is to stay with patient until urge to check diminishes

  • Violations of home practice are reported to therapist


Guidelines for constructing imaginal exposure scenes
Guidelines for Constructing Imaginal Exposure Scenes

  • Imaginal sessions should be approximately 45 min. in duration;

  • Present approximately six scenes of gradually increasing anxiety evoking potential;

  • Include external stimuli and internal/cognitive or physiological responses in the feared scene.


Common difficulties during erp
Common Difficulties During ERP

  • Non-compliance with response prevention instructions

  • Continued passive avoidance

  • Arguing/balking about exposure/response prevention requirements

  • Emotional overload

  • Family reactions


Summary of outcome for erp foa et al in press
Summary of Outcome for ERP(Foa et al, in press)

  • Reviewed 18 studies of ERP

  • 83% response rate at posttreatment

  • 76% response rate at follow-up (Mean 9 months)

  • Mean symptom reduction was 46% at posttreatment


Limitations of exposure response prevention for ocd
Limitations of Exposure-Response Prevention for OCD

  • Substantial treatment refusal rate

  • Difficulty in transporting ERP to centers that do not specialize in OCD (low generalizability);

  • Low credibility of ERP among psychiatrists


Limitations of combined treatment studies for ocd
Limitations of Combined Treatment Studies for OCD

  • Fails to provide a conclusive comparison of the relative short and long-term effects of the individual monotherapies;

  • Fail to adequately examine whether combined treatment is superior to either drug or ERP administered alone

  • Fail to adequately examine relapse and the potential for ERP to reduce relapse


Nimh multicenter study
NIMH Multicenter Study

  • Sites

  • Design

  • Strengths

  • Results



Multi site ocd acute treatment response
Multi-Site OCDAcute Treatment Response

Data taken from Kozak, Liebowitz, & Foa (2000). “Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The NIMH-Sponsored Collaborative Study. In Osessive-Compulsive Disorder: Contemporary Issues in Treatment; ed by Irving Weiner.


Multi site ocd relapse at follow up
Multi-Site OCDRelapse at Follow-up

Data taken from Kozak, Liebowitz, & Foa (2000). “Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The NIMH-Sponsored Collaborative Study. In Osessive-Compulsive Disorder: Contemporary Issues in Treatment; ed by Irving Weiner.


Moderators of treatment outcome
Moderators of Treatment Outcome

  • Personality disorders

  • Pretreatment OCD severity

  • Pretreatment depression

  • Outcome expectancies

  • Compliance with treatment

  • Strength of belief in harm

  • Comorbid tic disorders*


Do the effects of erp generalize to the real world
Do the Effects of ERP Generalize to the Real World?

Data taken from Franklin, et al. (2000). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68 (4), 594-602



Cognitive factors in ocd
Cognitive Factors in OCD

  • Overestimation of the importance of thoughts

    • Distorted thinking

    • Thought-action fusion

    • Magical thinking


Cognitive factors in ocd1
Cognitive Factors in OCD

  • Responsibility

  • Perfectionism

    • Need for certainty

    • Need to know

    • Need for control


Cognitive factors in ocd2
Cognitive Factors in OCD

  • Overinterpretation of threat

  • Consequences of anxiety

    • Anxiety is dangerous

    • Anxiety will prevent me from functioning


Empirical support for cognitive interventions
Empirical Support for Cognitive Interventions

  • LaDouceur et al (1996)

  • Van Oppen et al (1995)


Comparison trial of erp and cognitive therapy
Comparison Trial of ERP and Cognitive Therapy

Data taken from Van Oppen et al (1995) Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 379-390.


ad