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Acute pancreatitis is sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. It is accompanied by severe abdominal pain. Pancreatitis may be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on physiological findings, laboratory values, and radiological imaging.Pancreatitis may be further classified into acute interstitial and acute hemorrhagic disease.\n

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acute pancreatitis

ACUTE PANCREATITIS

Causes | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment

introduction to acute pancreatitis
Introduction to Acute Pancreatitis
  • Acute pancreatitis is sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. It is accompanied by severe abdominal pain.
  • Pancreatitis may be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on physiological findings, laboratory values, and radiological imaging.
  • Pancreatitis may be further classified into acute interstitial and acute hemorrhagic disease.
causes of acute pancreatitis
Causes of Acute Pancreatitis

Most cases of the acute pancreatitis are caused by gallstone and alcohol; however, in some cases the cause is unknown. Other causes of acute pancreatitis include:-

  • Autoimmune problems
  • High levels of triglycerides
  • Damage to pancreas during surgery
  • Blockage of pancreatic duct or common bile duct
  • Viral infection such as mumps
  • Heredity
  • Reyes Syndrome
symptoms of acute pancreatitis
Symptoms of Acute Pancreatitis

The main symptoms of acute pancreatitis is abdominal pain felt in the upper left side or middle of the abdomen.

  • The pain typically lasts for two days and relieved by leaning forward
  • Radiates to the back or below the left shoulder-blade
  • Worsens when lying flat on the back
  • Appears suddenly and becomes constant and more severe
  • Feels worse after eating
continue symptoms of acute pancreatitis
Continue:- Symptoms of Acute Pancreatitis

Other Symptoms:-

  • Jaundice
  • Clay coloured stools
  • Swollen abdomen
  • Indigestion
  • Skin rash
  • Skin lesion
  • Gaseous abdominal fullness
  • Nausea and vomiting
test and diagnosis for acute pancreatitis
Test and Diagnosis for Acute Pancreatitis

To diagnose the acute pancreatitis, the doctor will ask for your medical history. He will also do a physical examination that may reveal:

  • Abdominal tenderness or mass
  • Rapid heart beat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Low blood pressure
continue test and diagnosis for acute pancreatitis
Continue :- Test and Diagnosis for Acute Pancreatitis
  • He may also order a blood test which includes a complete blood countand a comprehensive metabolic panel. Imaging test may also be done. These include:
  • Abdominal ultrasoundto check for inflammation
  • CAT Scan to check for gallstone.
  • MRI to show the pancreas, gallbladder, and pancreatic and bile duct.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) to create a visual images of the pancreas and bile duct.
treatment for acute pancreatitis
Treatment for Acute Pancreatitis
  • Gastric suction
  • Fluid and electrolyte replacement
  • Antibiotics
  • Octreotide, PPIs
  • Endoscopic Sphincterotomy(ERCP)

Treatment usually requires hospitalization for intravenous fluids, antibiotics and pain medication. In more severe cases, surgery may be needed to remove dead or infected pancreatic tissue.

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