Psda on drinking water education
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PSDA ON DRINKING WATER & EDUCATION. A PILOT CITIZEN REPORT CARD IN ZANZIBAR, TANZANIA. THE BACKDROP. 2002 ZPRP – Strong Emphasis on participatory poverty monitoring Stakeholder consultations (Nov.2002 &Jan.2003)  focus on Implementation Four tools identified – PPER, PPET, PORT & CRC.

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PSDA ON DRINKING WATER & EDUCATION

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Psda on drinking water education

PSDA ON DRINKING WATER & EDUCATION

A PILOT CITIZEN REPORT CARD IN ZANZIBAR, TANZANIA

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


The backdrop

THE BACKDROP

  • 2002 ZPRP – Strong Emphasis on participatory poverty monitoring

  • Stakeholder consultations (Nov.2002 &Jan.2003)  focus on Implementation

  • Four tools identified – PPER, PPET, PORT & CRC

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


How was the pilot designed

HOW WAS THE PILOT DESIGNED?

  • Tool identified after a review of international best practices

  • Technical expertise provided by the pioneers of citizen report cards

  • Emphasis on building local capacities & competencies

  • Creation of a broad-based Implementation Consortium to “drive” and “own” the processes locally

  • Strategic entry through a Pilot in 2 sectors

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


What were the key stages in the psda

WHAT WERE THE KEY STAGES IN THE PSDA?

  • Assessment of the feasibility of PSDA

  • Identification of sectors & areas

  • Identification of key issues through focus groups

  • Design of the survey instrument

  • Capacity building training intervention

  • Conduct of survey

  • Analysis & Reporting

  • Strategizing Reforms & Institutionalization

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Psda on drinking water education in zanzibar

PSDA ON DRINKING WATER & EDUCATION IN ZANZIBAR

THE METHODOLOGY

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Coverage

COVERAGE

Two districts were covered

  • West district in Unguja

  • Chake Chake district in Pemba

  • Purposively selected to capture urban and rural characteristics and regional variations

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


A tale of two islands

Micheweni

Wete

ChakeChake

Mkoani

Kaskazini 'A'

Kaskazini 'B'

Magharibi

Mjini

Kati

Kusini

A TALE OF TWO ISLANDS…

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Sample selection

SAMPLE SELECTION

  • 35 Enumeration Areas (EAs) were selected, 21 from West district and 14 from Chake Chake district

  • 1015 households selected from two districts - 609 households in Unguja and 406 in Pemba.

  • 29 households were interviewed in each selected Enumeration Area

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Field instruments

FIELD INSTRUMENTS

  • Listing Form

  • Survey Questionnaire

  • Instruction Guide & Scrutiny Manual

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Listing excercise

LISTING EXCERCISE

  • PSDA listing exercise was carried out from 8th – 10th December, 2003

  • Listing exercise determined the frame that was used to select the households for interviews

  • Households listed were those who have children aged 7-15 and studying in primary school

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


The survey questionnaire

THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

  • 3 SECTIONS

    - Identification section (location, details of interview)

    - socio economic profile (age, gender, educational status)

    - feedback on services (access, use, quality, costs, reliability)

  • Scales – Satisfaction with services

    Satisfied Dissatisfied Don’t Know

    HighlySatisfiedHighly Dissatisfied

    SatisfiedDissatisfied

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Training for building local capacity

TRAINING FOR BUILDING LOCAL CAPACITY

  • A Training Workshop for 30 participants was held during 24-29 December 2003.

  • Training was carried out by consultants from Public Affairs Foundation (PAF) India.

    Participants were as follows:

  • 3 from Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs

  • 10 from Office of Chief Government Statistician

  • 13 from Consortium of NGOs

  • 2 members from Information, Education and Communication(IEC) Technical Working Group

  • 2 members from the two sectors - Water and Education

  • In addition to the conceptual inputs, two field practicals on interviewing were held in Bwejuu village in order to build capacity for the field staff.

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Field staff

FIELD STAFF

  • 1 project Coordinator (OCGS)

  • 2 Supervisors (OCGS) –Unguja & Pemba

  • 16 field enumerators (8 from Consortium of NGOS and 8 from OCGS)

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Psda enumeration

PSDA ENUMERATION

  • The survey was carried out from 3rd –14th January 2004

  • Office of Chief Government Statistician (OCGS) Coordinated the entire field operation

  • Care taken to ensure quality control

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Lessons from the field excercise

LESSONS FROM THE FIELD EXCERCISE

  • Since the questions were straightforward and easy to understand, the respondents were willing to cooperate and respond to the questions properly.

  • The exercise has raised lots of expectations. Respondents have high hopes to get redress to pressing problems.

  • All participants found the new experience with the Citizen Report Card to be very stimulating and empowering.

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


And some problems

And some PROBLEMS…

  • Due to the lack of previous experiences with similar surveys, certain problems did arise while filling out the schedules – e.g., skip patterns and proper coding ( More days for training are needed)

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Data processing

DATA PROCESSING

  • Data Processing stage included development of a customized program, manual editing, data entry, cleaning and tabulation – coordinated by the OCGS

  • Data analysis was carried out with the support of consultants from Public Affairs Foundation, Bangalore

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Psda on drinking water education in zanzibar1

PSDA ON DRINKING WATER & EDUCATION IN ZANZIBAR

KEY FINDINGS – DRINKING WATER

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water

DRINKING WATER

  • What is the reach of Government pipe water supply?

  • Reaches 77% of the households

  • Reach better in West (86%) as compared to CC(64%)

  • Common tap most used (43%), followed by household connection (34%) and Wells (14%)

  • 90% of common tap users report availability within 300m

  • Affordability (54%) quoted as the main reason for not opting for household connection

  • 63% of women headed households find affordability a major issue, as compared to 51% of male headed HHs

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd

DRINKING WATER (Contd..)

  • How does the rest manage?

  • High dependence on unprotected sources like wells (18%)

  • Dependence of unprotected sources a big issue in CC (34%)

  • Main demographic group with no access to govt. water are farmers; 26% depend on unprotected wells

  • 60% of users of common sources make more than 5 trips to collect drinking water

  • More than one-third of the users of unprotected wells travel more than 300m to collect water; 10% for users of common taps

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd1

DRINKING WATER(contd..)

  • Who collects the water from alternate sources?

  • Adult females (29%) & girls (18%) are the two groups regularly fetching water; adult males (9%) & boys (11%)

  • 50% of all those fetching water from a distance beyond 300m are adult females & girls

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd2

DRINKING WATER(contd..)

  • How difficult is it secure a HH connection?

  • Domestic connections can be easily secured; very few reported facing problems (6%).

  • How adequate is the Public water Supply?

  • 61% of household connections report daily water supply; West reports more (77%) compared to CC(31%).

  • 88% of those receiving daily water supply report >10hrs of availability

  • 70% of users find water from domestic connection adequate to meet daily requirements; CC reports a lower proportion (59%)

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd3

DRINKING WATER(contd..)

  • How do people cope with seasonal scarcity?

  • One in two respondents (51%) experience seasonal scarcity

  • 41% forced to shift out of their regular source; high in CC (56%) as compared to West (37%)

  • Users of domestic connection face greater scarcity (56%) as compared to those using common taps (49%)

  • Highest scarcity experienced by users of unprotected wells (62%)

  • The major point of shift during scarcity is towards unprotected wells; 27% of domestic connections, 28% using common taps and 86% using unprotected wells shift to other unprotected wells.

  • 26% of HHs collect water from a distance of >300m during scarcity as compared to 15% during normal conditions

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


The transition matrix

THE TRANSITION MATRIX

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd4

DRINKING WATER(contd..)

  • How reliable is the Public Water Supply?

  • Breakdowns confront many households (77%)

  • 21% of domestic connections report breakdowns at least once a month

  • Frequent breakdowns are more in CC (32%) as compared to West (16%)

  • 70% of problems attended to within a week

  • In case of problems, more than one-third (37%) prefer not to contact any official; 28% prefer department officials & 9% private technicians

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd5

DRINKING WATER(contd..)

  • How satisfied are people with public water supply?

  • In general, satisfaction with quantity of water is less for all the sources as compared to quality

  • Across different sources, users of domestic connections and common taps give comparatively higher scores for quality & quantity

  • Dissatisfaction with the quantity of water from domestic connections is markedly high in CC (42%) as compared to West(22%)

  • Scarcity has a strong impact on satisfaction. 95% of dissatisfied users of domestic connections and 82% of dissatisfied users of common taps also reported scarcity.

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd6

DRINKING WATER(contd..)

  • How Involved is the Community in maintaining the public water sources?

  • 58% of users report involvement. 44% in the form of financial contributions, 20% as labour & 36% as a combination of both

  • How willing are users to pay for better services?

  • 65% of all users of public water facilities report willingness to pay

  • The median value works out to Tsh. 1000 per month; 91% prefer monthly payments

  • Willingness to pay is reported more in West (72%) as compared to CC (52%)

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Drinking water contd7

DRINKING WATER(contd..)

  • What are the major suggestions from citizens to improve services?

  • Check/penalise illegal connections

  • More public standpipes in rural areas

  • Repair/replacement of main water lines to control leakages

  • Minimise connection charges for HH taps

  • Timing & duration of water supply to be notified in advance

  • Charge use of water & link payments to minimum standards

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Policy pointers

POLICY POINTERS

  • Extending the reach of water supply network may face technical & cost constraints as excluded segments may be living in scattered settlements

  • A high priority may be accorded to increase coverage under HH taps to ease the burden on women & children

  • Issue of affordability need to be addressed through a mix of motivation & targeted subsidies.

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Policy pointers1

POLICY POINTERS

  • The biggest challenge is in addressing scarcity. Investments in improving the safety of wells will benefit a large number of HHs

  • The willingness of users to pay for better services requires closer examination.

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Psda on drinking water education in zanzibar2

PSDA ON DRINKING WATER & EDUCATION IN ZANZIBAR

KEY FINDINGS – PRIMARY EDUCATION

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Primary education

PRIMARY EDUCATION

  • What is the reach of government schools?

  • 97% of primary school going children attend a government institution

  • Very few cases of dropouts (2%); however, 12% have not attended school – CC reports a higher figure (15%) compared to 09% in West

  • 45% can access a primary school within 1 km from home

  • A larger proportion in CC (17%) travel beyond 2 kms to attend schools as compared to 10% in West

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Primary education contd

PRIMARY EDUCATION (Contd.)

  • How do people find the quality of primary education?

  • Attendance of teachers (91%) and students (98%) reported to be regular

  • Free textbooks and notebooks are available only to a small segment (34% & 3% respectively); issue of free textbooks a bigger concern in West (28%) as compared to CC (44%)

  • While availability of toilets is good (97%), availability of libraries (34%) are rated poorly – 8% in CC as compared to 50% in West.

  • Two-thirds (66%) find school committees functional; higher proportion in West (74%) as compared to CC (54%)

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Primary education contd1

PRIMARY EDUCATION(Contd.)

  • What are the costs incurred in using primary schools?

  • 98% pay fees or contributions; the largest proportion goes towards building (73%), 31% towards teaching aids and 8% towards furniture

  • These contributions work out to an average of Tsh.289 per month

  • 61% of this payment was demanded by the authorities

  • 15% of primary school going children attend private tuitions; insistence of teachers (18%) and inadequate coverage of syllabus (17%) quoted as main reasons

  • Inadequate coverage of syllabus - West (24%), while nearly one third in CC - teachers insisted on private tuitions (30%)

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Primary education contd2

PRIMARY EDUCATION (Contd.)

  • How satisfied are parents with Primary Education?

  • Satisfaction with behaviour of teachers (88%), school building (86%) and quality of teaching (82%) quite high

  • Satisfaction significantly declines in relation to recreational facilities (21%) and quality of study materials (37%)

  • A higher proportion in West (20%) expressed dissatisfaction with adequacy of teachers as compared to 10% in CC

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Primary education contd3

PRIMARY EDUCATION(Contd.)

  • What are the major suggestions from citizens to improve services?

  • Need to reduce overcrowding

  • Minimise forced contributions – stick to the concept of free primary education

  • Need to retain experienced teachers in rural areas

  • Health check up facilities in schools

  • Village Development Committees should focus more on rural education needs

  • Curriculum needs to reflect life skills

  • Strict terms to prohibit teachers & students from involving in politics

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Policy pointers2

POLICY POINTERS

  • Gap/delay in enrolment may be addressed through motivational campaigns

  • Wider awareness among parents about incentives & closer monitoring

  • Additional investment on support facilities like libraries

  • Early warning signs on adequacy of teachers

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Feasibility of crcs in zanzibar

Feasibility of CRCs in Zanzibar

  • Reliable feedback on service quality can be generated through this process

  • Feedback focuses attention on key aspects of service delivery that need to be addressed

  • CRC is seen as a feasible good practice by the Government of Zanzibar

  • Discussions & Survey had participation and cooperation from all segments of the population, including the poor

  • Local institutions, within government & outside have gathered enough capacity to carry out most of the tasks in a CRC

  • The approach can be repeated to benchmark and monitor service improvements overtime

  • The process can be adapted to other services and an serve as a trigger for reforms

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


The post script

THE POST SCRIPT…

  • Immediate Spin-Offs – UNDP SGP for Restoration of Wells

  • Strong Demand from the Health Sector – WHO & Ministry

  • Strong Demand from Donors to scale up for the entire province

  • Recommendations to fine tune the instrument & include case studies

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


Thank you

Thank You!

Dr. Gopakumar K Thampi, THE IMPLEMENTATION CONSORTIUM, ZANZIBAR


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