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Chapter 15 Respiratory System

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Chapter 15 Respiratory System. 1. Components ---nose ---pharynx ---larynx ---trachea ---bronchi ---lung. 2. Trachea and main bronchi. three layers 1) Mucosa : ---epithelium: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium ---lamina propria: CT, contain LC, PC, MC, BV, LV.

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1. Components







2 trachea and main bronchi
2. Trachea and main bronchi

three layers


---epithelium: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

---lamina propria: CT, contain LC, PC, MC, BV, LV

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epi.
  • ciliated cell: columnar, cilia
  • goblet cell
  • basal cell:

-pyramidal, basally-located

-undifferentiated cell→ciliated cell or goblet cell

brush cell:

-columnar, microvilli,

-EM: RER, no g.

-function: not very clear, may be

i.become into ciliated cell

ii.receive sensory stimuli-epitheliodendritic synapse

diffuse neuroendocrine cell:

-less, pyramidal

-EM: dense-core g.-small granule cell

neuroepithelial body: cell + NF

-Function: secret hormones to regulate contract of SM and secretion of gland

i. 5-hydroxytryptamine(serotonin)

ii. calcitonin

iii. enkephalin

* clear basement membrane

2) Submucosa:

LCT, with BV, LV and N

  • tracheal gland: mixed
  • diffuse LT and LN

* S Ig A = secretory component (secreted by epi. cell) + Ig A ( produced by plasma cell)

3) Adventitia:
  • cartilage ring: 16-20 “C ” shaped
  • circular ligament: elastic F
  • SM- posterior part( membrane part): SM, elastic F, tracheal gland
3 lung
3. Lung

---paired organ, located in thoracic cavity

1) General structure:

---capsule: visceral layer of pleura- serous membrane-CT + mesothelium

---parenchyma: all branches of bronchi and alveoli( right 3, left 2)

---interstitia: CT, BV, LV, N

* branchi →intrapulmonary bronchial tree( lobar bronchial tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)

D < 1mm D < 0.5 mm

→bronchioles →terminal bronchioles →respiratory bronchioles →alveolar duct →alveolar sac → alveoli

* pulmonary lobule: one bronchioles and its all branches and all alveoli

  • cone or pyramidal-shaped: apex pointed toward the hilum and basal(1.0 cm in D) faced the surface
  • more CT between them
2) Conducting portion

① from lobar bronchi to small bronchi

---Regulation of simplification: (gradually)

  • mucosa:

-epi. : become thinner

-goblet cell ↓

-lamina propria: thinner, SM ↑

  • submucosa: gland ↓
  • adventitia: cartilage→cartilage →decreasing
② bronchiole: D < 1mm

---continuous to change

  • goblet cell, Gland, cartilage ↓ or disappear
  • smooth muscle ↑,circular mucosa plica ↑
③ terminal bronchiole: D < 0.5 mm

---goblet cell, gland, cartilage disappear

---SM: form a whole layer of circumferential SM


  • simple columnar epi.: two types of cells
  • A layer of SM
i. ciliated cell

ii.secreting cell: Clara cell


  • dome-shaped apical
  • SER
  • Secreting G: contains proteolytase and oxidase


  • dissolve the mucus
  • biological thansformation
  • undifferentiated cell → ciliated cell
3) respiratory portion

①respiratory bronchiole

---similar to terminal bronchioles:

  • simple ciliated columnar epi.
  • smooth muscle

---place where connect with alveoli: gradual changing

  • simple cuboidal epi. →simple squamous epi.
  • less SM, elastic F
②alveolar duct: 20-60 alveoli connect with it

---wall: hard to see- opening part between two alveoli

  • simple cuboidal epi. or squamous epi.
  • SM: single, EF- knob-liked structure
③alveolar sac:

---many alveoli open to it

---no proper wall, no knob-liked structure


---polygonal, with opening sac- 0.2mm in D, 300-400 million/per lung, total area: 70-80mm2


  • epi. and basal lamina
  • alveolar septum: CT with BV, EF
alveolur epi:

---type I alveolar cell:

LM: flattened, 0.2um, N: round


  • plasmalemmal vesicles
  • tight junction

Function: constitute the blood-air barrier

---type II alveolar cell: scattered, 5-8/per alveoles


  • cuboidal or round, with round N
  • paler- stained, foamy cytoplasm
  • secreting granules: Osmiophilic multilamellar body

-0.1-1.0 um

-contains: phospholipid, glycosaminoglycan and protein

  • microvilli, mito, lysosome, RER, Golgi


i. secreting surfactant

ii.differentiated into type I alveolar cell

b. alveolar septum: CT
  • EF
  • Fibroblast, macrophage, plasma cell, mast cell
  • LV, N
  • capillary: endothelium + basement membrane
* Blood-air barrier: the structure through which the gaseous exchange takes place

---0.2-0.5 um


  • a layer of liquid
  • type I alveolar cell and basement M
  • CT
  • capillary endothelial cell and BM
c. alveolar pore: 10-15 um

---equalize( balance) the air-pressure between alveoli

---lober pneumonia- bacteria or inflammatory spread through the pore

d. alveolar marcophage: monocytes- MPS

---dust cell: macrophage which phagocytose carbon or duct particles

---heart failure cell: when lung congested(edema), the alveolar marcophage phagocytose RBC, digest the hemoglobin into hemosiderin(pigment) and accumulated them within macrophage