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Chapter 15 Respiratory System. 1. Components ---nose ---pharynx ---larynx ---trachea ---bronchi ---lung. 2. Trachea and main bronchi. three layers 1) Mucosa : ---epithelium: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium ---lamina propria: CT, contain LC, PC, MC, BV, LV.

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Chapter 15 Respiratory System

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Chapter 15 respiratory system l.jpg

Chapter 15 Respiratory System


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1. Components

---nose

---pharynx

---larynx

---trachea

---bronchi

---lung


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2. Trachea and main bronchi

three layers

1)Mucosa:

---epithelium: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

---lamina propria: CT, contain LC, PC, MC, BV, LV


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Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epi.

  • ciliated cell: columnar, cilia

  • goblet cell

  • basal cell:

    -pyramidal, basally-located

    -undifferentiated cell→ciliated cell or goblet cell


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  • brush cell:

    -columnar, microvilli,

    -EM: RER, no g.

    -function: not very clear, may be

    i.become into ciliated cell

    ii.receive sensory stimuli-epitheliodendritic synapse


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  • diffuse neuroendocrine cell:

    -less, pyramidal

    -EM: dense-core g.-small granule cell

    neuroepithelial body: cell + NF

    -Function: secret hormones to regulate contract of SM and secretion of gland

    i. 5-hydroxytryptamine(serotonin)

    ii. calcitonin

    iii. enkephalin

    * clear basement membrane


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2) Submucosa:

LCT, with BV, LV and N

  • tracheal gland: mixed

  • diffuse LT and LN

    * S Ig A = secretory component (secreted by epi. cell) + Ig A ( produced by plasma cell)


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3) Adventitia:

  • cartilage ring: 16-20 “C ” shaped

  • circular ligament: elastic F

  • SM- posterior part( membrane part): SM, elastic F, tracheal gland


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3. Lung

---paired organ, located in thoracic cavity


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1) General structure:

---capsule: visceral layer of pleura- serous membrane-CT + mesothelium

---parenchyma: all branches of bronchi and alveoli( right 3, left 2)

---interstitia: CT, BV, LV, N


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* branchi →intrapulmonary bronchial tree( lobar bronchial tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)

D < 1mm D < 0.5 mm

→bronchioles →terminal bronchioles →respiratory bronchioles →alveolar duct →alveolar sac → alveoli

* pulmonary lobule: one bronchioles and its all branches and all alveoli

  • cone or pyramidal-shaped: apex pointed toward the hilum and basal(1.0 cm in D) faced the surface

  • more CT between them


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2) Conducting portion

① from lobar bronchi to small bronchi

---Regulation of simplification: (gradually)

  • mucosa:

    -epi. : become thinner

    -goblet cell ↓

    -lamina propria: thinner, SM ↑

  • submucosa: gland ↓

  • adventitia: cartilage→cartilage →decreasing


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② bronchiole: D < 1mm

---continuous to change

  • goblet cell, Gland, cartilage ↓ or disappear

  • smooth muscle ↑,circular mucosa plica ↑


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③ terminal bronchiole: D < 0.5 mm

---goblet cell, gland, cartilage disappear

---SM: form a whole layer of circumferential SM

---Wall:

  • simple columnar epi.: two types of cells

  • A layer of SM


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i. ciliated cell

ii.secreting cell: Clara cell

EM:

  • dome-shaped apical

  • SER

  • Secreting G: contains proteolytase and oxidase

    function:

  • dissolve the mucus

  • biological thansformation

  • undifferentiated cell → ciliated cell


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3) respiratory portion

①respiratory bronchiole

---similar to terminal bronchioles:

  • simple ciliated columnar epi.

  • smooth muscle

    ---place where connect with alveoli: gradual changing

  • simple cuboidal epi. →simple squamous epi.

  • less SM, elastic F


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②alveolar duct: 20-60 alveoli connect with it

---wall: hard to see- opening part between two alveoli

  • simple cuboidal epi. or squamous epi.

  • SM: single, EF- knob-liked structure


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③alveolar sac:

---many alveoli open to it

---no proper wall, no knob-liked structure


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④alveoli:

---polygonal, with opening sac- 0.2mm in D, 300-400 million/per lung, total area: 70-80mm2

---wall:

  • epi. and basal lamina

  • alveolar septum: CT with BV, EF


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  • alveolur epi:

    ---type I alveolar cell:

    LM: flattened, 0.2um, N: round

    EM:

  • plasmalemmal vesicles

  • tight junction

    Function: constitute the blood-air barrier


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---type II alveolar cell: scattered, 5-8/per alveoles

LM:

  • cuboidal or round, with round N

  • paler- stained, foamy cytoplasm


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EM:

  • secreting granules: Osmiophilic multilamellar body

    -0.1-1.0 um

    -contains: phospholipid, glycosaminoglycan and protein

  • microvilli, mito, lysosome, RER, Golgi

    Function:

    i. secreting surfactant

    ii.differentiated into type I alveolar cell


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b. alveolar septum: CT

  • EF

  • Fibroblast, macrophage, plasma cell, mast cell

  • LV, N

  • capillary: endothelium + basement membrane


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* Blood-air barrier: the structure through which the gaseous exchange takes place

---0.2-0.5 um

---components:

  • a layer of liquid

  • type I alveolar cell and basement M

  • CT

  • capillary endothelial cell and BM


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c. alveolar pore: 10-15 um

---equalize( balance) the air-pressure between alveoli

---lober pneumonia- bacteria or inflammatory spread through the pore


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d. alveolar marcophage: monocytes- MPS

---dust cell: macrophage which phagocytose carbon or duct particles

---heart failure cell: when lung congested(edema), the alveolar marcophage phagocytose RBC, digest the hemoglobin into hemosiderin(pigment) and accumulated them within macrophage


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