Treaty of Versailles and the Worldwide Depression. Unit 2 Notes. In November 1918 Germany surrenders to the Allied countries. The most powerful ones, being France, USA and Britain, wanted to create a treaty that clearly explained what Germany would now have to do. BUT WHAT SHOULD THEY DO?.
Treaty of Versaillesand theWorldwide Depression
Unit 2 Notes
In November 1918 Germany surrenders to the Allied countries. The most powerful ones, being France, USA and Britain, wanted to create a treaty that clearly explained what Germany would now have to do.
BUT WHAT SHOULD THEY DO?
Many Historians believe that disagreements happened because the war affected the countries in many different ways.
WHAT COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED...
The British Prime Minister thought that if the Treaty was too harsh, then Germany might one day start another war.
Some British people blamed Germany for the war and wanted revenge
750,000 men died
Spent nearly $8 billion of which $1 billion was borrowed from the USA
I don’t want to cripple Germany in the Treaty. I think that this could start another war in the future, but people in Britain want Germany to pay.
They joined in 1917 and lost 113,000 men.
USA wanted a ‘softer’ treaty because they thought Germany was important for the future...
USA’s homeland was never attacked
Woodrow Wilson: Idon’t agree with France. Its probably because we didn’t suffer nearly as much as the French. However, I want to focus upon setting up the League of Nations.
US did not join the League of Nations for fear of being drawn into more wars. This also means the US did not sign the Treaty of Versailles.
Most of the fighting took place in Northern France.
Germany stole 90% of France’s coal and iron in 1914
1,250,000 men died
Many roads and factories had been destroyed
I want to make sure that Germany pays for the problems it has caused us. We suffered the most in WW1 and we demand revenge and reparations
“SIGN THE TREATY OR WE WILL INVADE YOU……ITS YOUR CHOICE!”
The treaty was dictated to Germany-- they did not have a say in it.
WHAT DID THE TREATY ACCOMPLISH?
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
This organization of nations would cooperate to keep peace.
This was know as reparations. Germany had to pay $33 billion dollars.
All of Germany’s colonies were taken away and given away to the Allied countries.
Treaty of Versailles
MASSIVE ARMY CUTS
The Army was cut to just 100,000 men, the Navy could only have 6 battleships, and they were not allowed to build any new planes, tanks, or submarines.
GERMAN LAND GIVEN AWAY
Germany lost land to France, Poland, Belgium, and Denmark. An area of Germany was even separated from the mainland.
Land taken away from Germany under the treaty of Versailles
Not only did Germany lose about 10% of its land, it also consequently lost 10% of its population. German people were now living in foreign countries.
Excerpt from a German newspaper on the day the treaty was signed...
“Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful Treaty is being signed.
Do not forget it. The German people will press forward to reconquer the place among nations to which we deserve. Then will come revenge for the shame of 1919.”
Germany was a proud country due to its military strength and strong traditions of dominance within that area of Europe. However, the treaty of Versailles created different feelings:
The war had left Germany almost bankrupt. As its people starved and the country lay in chaos, the Allies gave them a bill (Treaty of Versailles) that they simply could not afford to pay...
RESULT: German money become worthless
German money was only good for starting fires…