Animal classification
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Animal Classification. Unit Two – God’s Living Creation Chapter Five – Animal Classification. Animal Classification Introduction. One of the most distinguishing characteristics of animals is whether or not they have backbones. Invertebrates – animals without backbones

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Animal Classification

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Animal Classification

Unit Two – God’s Living Creation

Chapter Five – Animal Classification

Animal ClassificationIntroduction

  • One of the most distinguishing characteristics of animals is whether or not they have backbones.

  • Invertebrates – animals without backbones

  • Vertebrates – animals with backbones

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates

  • There are more invertebrates than vertebrates.

  • 95% of animals are invertebrates.

  • Scientists split invertebrates into smaller groups based on their unique characteristics.

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Sponges and Stinging Animals

  • Sponges

    • The water goes through tiny pores (holes) in the outside of the sponge. When the water flows through the sponge, the sponge extracts nutrients and small organisms that it needs.

  • Jellyfish

    • Nematocysts – tiny stinging organelles used to capture food

  • Sea anemones

  • Corals

    • The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef system in the world.

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Mollusks

  • Mollusks – animals that have soft bodies and mantles (special parts that form a shell)

    • Snails, oysters, clams

  • Bivalve – animal with two shells

    • Clams, mussels, oysters

  • Gastropods – “stomach footed”

    • Univalve – animal with only one shell

      • Snail

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Mollusks

  • Slug – mollusk without a shell

    • Nudibranchs – a type of slug found in the ocean

  • Cephalopods – moves with a jetlike motion by forcing water through a tube in its body

    • Squids, octopuses, chambered nautilus

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Echinoderms

  • Radial symmetry – equal parts radiate from the center

  • The bodies of echinoderms are shaped like the spokes of a bicycle wheel. Each of the spokes is the same. All echinoderms live in water and move around by using thousands of little tube feet.

    • Sea stars (starfish), sea urchins, sand dollars

  • Filter feeders – eat whatever comes floating through the water

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Echinoderms (continued)

  • Characteristics of Echinoderms

    • Have hard skeletons

    • Protect themselves in different ways

      • Spines on their bodies

      • Hide in cracks

      • Use camouflage

      • Break off its own arm and grow another

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Flatworms

  • Bilateral symmetry – can be divided down the middle and be the same on each side

  • Flatworms are either:

    • Parasitic – live on or in other living organisms (hosts); depend on their hosts for nourishment

    • Free-living – independent of other organisms

      • Planarians

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Roundworms

  • Smooth and round

  • Can be parasites or free-living

  • Roundworms help decompose dead organisms, and therefore, help fertilize the soil.

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Segmented Worms

  • Annelid – segmented worm

  • Segments – similar pieces

  • Setae – hairlike structures that worms use to move

  • Leeches

    • Suck blood only from the outside

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Segmented Worms (continued)

  • Sea worms

  • Earthworms

    • Burrow around and make holes for air to get into the soil

    • The air helps plants in the soil to grow.

    • Break down complex plant matter into nutrients that the plants around it can use.

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods

  • Arthropod – “jointed foot”

    • Jointed legs and segmented bodies

  • Exoskeleton – an outer hard covering that protects the animal

  • Molt – a process of shedding the exoskeleton in order to grow a new one and continue growing

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Crustaceans

  • Shrimp, lobsters, crabs

  • Characteristics of crustaceans

    • Have at least five pairs of jointed legs

    • Breathe through gills

    • Have some sort of claw

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Arachnids

  • Arachnids – have eight legs and two body segments

  • Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites

    • Ticks

      • Parasitic

      • Use animals and humans as hosts

      • Their bites can spread diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease

    • Spiders

      • Most familiar arachnids

      • Spinnerets – silk-spinning organs in the back of spiders

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Centi & Millipedes

  • Have many body segments and many legs

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects

  • Have three body segments

    • Head, thorax, abdomen

  • Have three pairs of legs

  • Have two pairs of wings

  • Mouthparts

    • Beetles – chewing mouthparts

    • Mosquitoes – piercing and sucking mouthparts

    • Butterflies & Moths – siphoning mouthparts

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects (continued)

  • Metamorphosis – the process where an insect becomes an adult

  • Two types of metamorphosis

    • Incomplete metamorphosis – three stages

      • Eggs, nymph, adult

    • Complete metamorphosis – four stages

      • Egg, larva, pupa, adult

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects (continued)

  • Bible Integration

    • Proverbs 30:25-28

    • Even God’s animals behave in such a way that glorifies God. We choose our behavior. Shouldn’t it be one that honors God?!

Animal ClassificationVertebrates

  • Invertebrates make up most of the species of the animal kingdom.

  • Vertebrates make up most of the size of the animal kingdom.

  • Vertebrates are able to grow larger than invertebrates because their backbone gives support for their greater weight.

  • Groups used to classify vertebrates

    • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish

  • All breathe through gills

  • Cold-blooded – find warmth or coolness from their environments

  • Grouped based on their skeletons – cartilage or bone

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish – Cartilage fish

  • Sharks, rays, and skates

  • Cartilage – bonelike substance, but softer and more bendable than bone

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish – Bony fish

  • Have skeletons that are stronger and harder than cartilage fish

  • Bluegill, bass, trout, seahorse, eel

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Amphibians

  • Cold-blooded

  • “Double life” – part in the water and part on land

  • Stages of frog metamorphosis

    • Egg – lay eggs in water

    • Larva – some eggs hatch into tadpoles

      • At the end of the larval stage, they lose their gills, grow legs, and move onto land

    • Adult

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Amphibians (continued)

  • Frogs

    • Smooth skin

    • Always live near water

    • Large, powerful hind legs for jumping

    • Lay their eggs in clusters

  • Toads

    • Short legs – hop short distances

    • Nubby skin that makes them look like they have warts

    • Lay their eggs in long chains

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles

  • Cold-blooded

  • Have scaly skin that allows them to live in areas away from water

  • Three major groups

    • Turtles, lizards and snakes, and crocodilians

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Turtles

  • Clearly identified by its unique skeletal structure

  • Omnivores – eating both plants and animals

  • Herbivores – eating only plants

    • Tortoises – high, domed shells

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Lizards and Snakes

  • Lizards

    • Look like salamanders (amphibians), but belong to reptile group

  • Snakes

    • Carnivores – eat only animals

    • Swallow their meals whole

    • Upper and lower jaws that are not tightly attached

    • Can swallow prey that is larger than the diameter of their own bodies

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Crocodilians

  • Alligators, caimans, crocodiles

  • Scaly skin, large bodies, short legs

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Birds

  • Birds are birds b/c they have feathers

  • Feathers assist in flight, protect them from the water they swim in and provide needed warmth

  • Birds that fly have very lightweight skeletons. Their bones are very hard, but they contain hollow, air-filled cavities

  • God has given each bird the perfect beak for the food it eats

  • Warm-blooded – having body temps that stay the same, regardless of their environment

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals

  • All have hair or fur

  • Warm-blooded

  • Most bear live young

  • All feed their young with milk from the mother’s body

  • All have a four-chambered heart

  • Have three ear bones

  • All breathe using lungs

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Monotremes

  • Monotremes – lay eggs

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Marsupials

  • Have pouches where their babies grow big enough to function

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Rodents, Rabbits, Moles

  • Rodents

    • Mice, rats, squirrels, beavers, porcupines

    • Have large front teeth that never stop growing

  • Rabbits

    • Teeth form differently than the rodent

  • Moles

    • Insectivores – eat insects as their primary food

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Bats

  • Only mammals that can fly

  • Nocturnal – come out at night

  • Echolocation – a technique used by bats in order for them to know where they are

    • Bats make high frequency clicks that bounce off objects. The bats judge the distance to the object by the time it takes the sound to return.

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Hoofed mammals

  • Two groups

    • Those with odd number of toes on each hoof

      • Horses, zebras, burros, mules

    • Those with even number of toes on each hoof

      • “Cloven hoof”

      • Deer, giraffes, camels, cattle, sheep, antelope, hippopotamus

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Carnivores

  • Meat-eaters

  • Cats

    • Have retractable claws – the claws disappear into its paw when it does not need them for hunting or climbing

    • Prides – group of lions

    • Lions, cougars, tigers, jaguars

  • Dogs

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Carnivores (continued)

  • Pinnipeds

    • Seals, walruses, sea lions

    • Primary food is fish, though they will eat mollusks, crustaceans, and even penguins

    • Can live in the ocean and on land

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Marine mammals

  • Whales

    • Blubber – fatty substance, rich in oil, that insulates whales against the cold

    • Baleen whales

      • Instead of teeth, they have giant plates, called baleen plates, that help them gather plankton and tiny crustaceans (krill)

    • Pods – groups of whales

    • Toothed whales

      • Dolphins, porpoises, orcas, sperm whales

      • Use echolocation (like bats)

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Primates

  • Have good eyesight

  • Have “hands” that can grasp

  • Two groups

    • Lemurs

    • Monkeys

      • New World Monkeys – spend much of their time in trees

      • Old World Monkeys – spend much of their time on the ground

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Humans

  • Genesis 1:24-27, 2:7

  • One difference between man and animals is that God gave man a soul.

  • Man was created separately from the rest of creation and was formed in the likeness and image of God.

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