Animal classification
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Animal Classification. Unit Two – God’s Living Creation Chapter Five – Animal Classification. Animal Classification Introduction. One of the most distinguishing characteristics of animals is whether or not they have backbones. Invertebrates – animals without backbones

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Animal Classification

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Animal classification

Animal Classification

Unit Two – God’s Living Creation

Chapter Five – Animal Classification

Animal classification introduction

Animal ClassificationIntroduction

  • One of the most distinguishing characteristics of animals is whether or not they have backbones.

  • Invertebrates – animals without backbones

  • Vertebrates – animals with backbones

Animal classification invertebrates

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates

  • There are more invertebrates than vertebrates.

  • 95% of animals are invertebrates.

  • Scientists split invertebrates into smaller groups based on their unique characteristics.

Animal classification invertebrates sponges and stinging animals

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Sponges and Stinging Animals

  • Sponges

    • The water goes through tiny pores (holes) in the outside of the sponge. When the water flows through the sponge, the sponge extracts nutrients and small organisms that it needs.

  • Jellyfish

    • Nematocysts – tiny stinging organelles used to capture food

  • Sea anemones

  • Corals

    • The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef system in the world.

Animal classification invertebrates mollusks

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Mollusks

  • Mollusks – animals that have soft bodies and mantles (special parts that form a shell)

    • Snails, oysters, clams

  • Bivalve – animal with two shells

    • Clams, mussels, oysters

  • Gastropods – “stomach footed”

    • Univalve – animal with only one shell

      • Snail

Animal classification invertebrates mollusks1

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Mollusks

  • Slug – mollusk without a shell

    • Nudibranchs – a type of slug found in the ocean

  • Cephalopods – moves with a jetlike motion by forcing water through a tube in its body

    • Squids, octopuses, chambered nautilus

Animal classification invertebrates echinoderms

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Echinoderms

  • Radial symmetry – equal parts radiate from the center

  • The bodies of echinoderms are shaped like the spokes of a bicycle wheel. Each of the spokes is the same. All echinoderms live in water and move around by using thousands of little tube feet.

    • Sea stars (starfish), sea urchins, sand dollars

  • Filter feeders – eat whatever comes floating through the water

Animal classification invertebrates echinoderms continued

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Echinoderms (continued)

  • Characteristics of Echinoderms

    • Have hard skeletons

    • Protect themselves in different ways

      • Spines on their bodies

      • Hide in cracks

      • Use camouflage

      • Break off its own arm and grow another

Animal classification invertebrates flatworms

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Flatworms

  • Bilateral symmetry – can be divided down the middle and be the same on each side

  • Flatworms are either:

    • Parasitic – live on or in other living organisms (hosts); depend on their hosts for nourishment

    • Free-living – independent of other organisms

      • Planarians

Animal classification invertebrates roundworms

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Roundworms

  • Smooth and round

  • Can be parasites or free-living

  • Roundworms help decompose dead organisms, and therefore, help fertilize the soil.

Animal classification invertebrates segmented worms

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Segmented Worms

  • Annelid – segmented worm

  • Segments – similar pieces

  • Setae – hairlike structures that worms use to move

  • Leeches

    • Suck blood only from the outside

Animal classification invertebrates segmented worms continued

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Segmented Worms (continued)

  • Sea worms

  • Earthworms

    • Burrow around and make holes for air to get into the soil

    • The air helps plants in the soil to grow.

    • Break down complex plant matter into nutrients that the plants around it can use.

Animal classification invertebrates arthropods

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods

  • Arthropod – “jointed foot”

    • Jointed legs and segmented bodies

  • Exoskeleton – an outer hard covering that protects the animal

  • Molt – a process of shedding the exoskeleton in order to grow a new one and continue growing

Animal classification invertebrates arthropods crustaceans

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Crustaceans

  • Shrimp, lobsters, crabs

  • Characteristics of crustaceans

    • Have at least five pairs of jointed legs

    • Breathe through gills

    • Have some sort of claw

Animal classification invertebrates arthropods arachnids

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Arachnids

  • Arachnids – have eight legs and two body segments

  • Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites

    • Ticks

      • Parasitic

      • Use animals and humans as hosts

      • Their bites can spread diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease

    • Spiders

      • Most familiar arachnids

      • Spinnerets – silk-spinning organs in the back of spiders

Animal classification invertebrates arthropods centi millipedes

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Centi & Millipedes

  • Have many body segments and many legs

Animal classification invertebrates arthropods insects

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects

  • Have three body segments

    • Head, thorax, abdomen

  • Have three pairs of legs

  • Have two pairs of wings

  • Mouthparts

    • Beetles – chewing mouthparts

    • Mosquitoes – piercing and sucking mouthparts

    • Butterflies & Moths – siphoning mouthparts

Animal classification invertebrates arthropods insects continued

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects (continued)

  • Metamorphosis – the process where an insect becomes an adult

  • Two types of metamorphosis

    • Incomplete metamorphosis – three stages

      • Eggs, nymph, adult

    • Complete metamorphosis – four stages

      • Egg, larva, pupa, adult

Animal classification invertebrates arthropods insects continued1

Animal ClassificationInvertebrates – Arthropods – Insects (continued)

  • Bible Integration

    • Proverbs 30:25-28

    • Even God’s animals behave in such a way that glorifies God. We choose our behavior. Shouldn’t it be one that honors God?!

Animal classification v ertebrates

Animal ClassificationVertebrates

  • Invertebrates make up most of the species of the animal kingdom.

  • Vertebrates make up most of the size of the animal kingdom.

  • Vertebrates are able to grow larger than invertebrates because their backbone gives support for their greater weight.

  • Groups used to classify vertebrates

    • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

Animal classification vertebrates fish

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish

  • All breathe through gills

  • Cold-blooded – find warmth or coolness from their environments

  • Grouped based on their skeletons – cartilage or bone

Animal classification vertebrates fish cartilage fish

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish – Cartilage fish

  • Sharks, rays, and skates

  • Cartilage – bonelike substance, but softer and more bendable than bone

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Fish – Bony fish

  • Have skeletons that are stronger and harder than cartilage fish

  • Bluegill, bass, trout, seahorse, eel

Animal classification vertebrates amphibians

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Amphibians

  • Cold-blooded

  • “Double life” – part in the water and part on land

  • Stages of frog metamorphosis

    • Egg – lay eggs in water

    • Larva – some eggs hatch into tadpoles

      • At the end of the larval stage, they lose their gills, grow legs, and move onto land

    • Adult

Animal classification vertebrates amphibians continued

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Amphibians (continued)

  • Frogs

    • Smooth skin

    • Always live near water

    • Large, powerful hind legs for jumping

    • Lay their eggs in clusters

  • Toads

    • Short legs – hop short distances

    • Nubby skin that makes them look like they have warts

    • Lay their eggs in long chains

Animal classification vertebrates reptiles

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles

  • Cold-blooded

  • Have scaly skin that allows them to live in areas away from water

  • Three major groups

    • Turtles, lizards and snakes, and crocodilians

Animal classification vertebrates reptiles turtles

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Turtles

  • Clearly identified by its unique skeletal structure

  • Omnivores – eating both plants and animals

  • Herbivores – eating only plants

    • Tortoises – high, domed shells

Animal classification vertebrates reptiles lizards and snakes

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Lizards and Snakes

  • Lizards

    • Look like salamanders (amphibians), but belong to reptile group

  • Snakes

    • Carnivores – eat only animals

    • Swallow their meals whole

    • Upper and lower jaws that are not tightly attached

    • Can swallow prey that is larger than the diameter of their own bodies

Animal classification vertebrates reptiles crocodilians

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Reptiles – Crocodilians

  • Alligators, caimans, crocodiles

  • Scaly skin, large bodies, short legs

Animal classification vertebrates birds

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Birds

  • Birds are birds b/c they have feathers

  • Feathers assist in flight, protect them from the water they swim in and provide needed warmth

  • Birds that fly have very lightweight skeletons. Their bones are very hard, but they contain hollow, air-filled cavities

  • God has given each bird the perfect beak for the food it eats

  • Warm-blooded – having body temps that stay the same, regardless of their environment

Animal classification vertebrates mammals

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals

  • All have hair or fur

  • Warm-blooded

  • Most bear live young

  • All feed their young with milk from the mother’s body

  • All have a four-chambered heart

  • Have three ear bones

  • All breathe using lungs

Animal classification vertebrates mammals monotremes

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Monotremes

  • Monotremes – lay eggs

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Marsupials

  • Have pouches where their babies grow big enough to function

Animal classification vertebrates mammals rodents rabbits moles

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Rodents, Rabbits, Moles

  • Rodents

    • Mice, rats, squirrels, beavers, porcupines

    • Have large front teeth that never stop growing

  • Rabbits

    • Teeth form differently than the rodent

  • Moles

    • Insectivores – eat insects as their primary food

Animal classification vertebrates mammals bats

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Bats

  • Only mammals that can fly

  • Nocturnal – come out at night

  • Echolocation – a technique used by bats in order for them to know where they are

    • Bats make high frequency clicks that bounce off objects. The bats judge the distance to the object by the time it takes the sound to return.

Animal classification vertebrates mammals hoofed mammals

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Hoofed mammals

  • Two groups

    • Those with odd number of toes on each hoof

      • Horses, zebras, burros, mules

    • Those with even number of toes on each hoof

      • “Cloven hoof”

      • Deer, giraffes, camels, cattle, sheep, antelope, hippopotamus

Animal classification vertebrates mammals carnivores

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Carnivores

  • Meat-eaters

  • Cats

    • Have retractable claws – the claws disappear into its paw when it does not need them for hunting or climbing

    • Prides – group of lions

    • Lions, cougars, tigers, jaguars

  • Dogs

Animal classification vertebrates mammals carnivores continued

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Carnivores (continued)

  • Pinnipeds

    • Seals, walruses, sea lions

    • Primary food is fish, though they will eat mollusks, crustaceans, and even penguins

    • Can live in the ocean and on land

Animal classification vertebrates mammals marine mammals

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Marine mammals

  • Whales

    • Blubber – fatty substance, rich in oil, that insulates whales against the cold

    • Baleen whales

      • Instead of teeth, they have giant plates, called baleen plates, that help them gather plankton and tiny crustaceans (krill)

    • Pods – groups of whales

    • Toothed whales

      • Dolphins, porpoises, orcas, sperm whales

      • Use echolocation (like bats)

Animal classification vertebrates mammals primates

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Mammals – Primates

  • Have good eyesight

  • Have “hands” that can grasp

  • Two groups

    • Lemurs

    • Monkeys

      • New World Monkeys – spend much of their time in trees

      • Old World Monkeys – spend much of their time on the ground

Animal classification vertebrates humans

Animal ClassificationVertebrates – Humans

  • Genesis 1:24-27, 2:7

  • One difference between man and animals is that God gave man a soul.

  • Man was created separately from the rest of creation and was formed in the likeness and image of God.

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