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Emotion, decision making & Time. Attitudes and Behavior. Attitude-behavior (in)consistency Goodness of emotion as a predictor How much is current situation like the choice situation? People have difficulty judging future preferences What ice cream will you want tomorrow?.

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Presentation Transcript

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Attitudes and Behavior

  • Attitude-behavior (in)consistency

    • Goodness of emotion as a predictor

    • How much is current situation like the choice situation?

    • People have difficulty judging future preferences

      • What ice cream will you want tomorrow?


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Real and Simulated choices

  • Why can’t people predict their future preferences?

    • People have a bad theory of motivational effects

      • Valuation and devaluation

      • Approach, avoidance, and time

    • Hard to simulate future motivational states

    • People cannot predict effects of time on choice


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Valuation and Devaluation

  • What is the effect of motivation on preference?

  • Valuation

  • Devaluation


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Example of Devaluation

  • This study uses an appetizing manipulation

  • Need to eat

    • Eating a small amount increases need to eat

  • Popcorn taste test:

    • High need to eat: Taste test first (ratings last)

    • Low need to eat: Taste test last (ratings first)

  • Rated attractiveness of consumer products

    • Food related (11 items)

    • Food unrelated (32 items: a variety of products)

    • Ratings mixed in with other unrelated tasks



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Approach, avoidance, and distance

  • Goal gradients

    • Lewin; Miller

    • Change in goal strength with distance to goal

      • Physical distance or temporal distance

Approach Gradient

Recent Evidence:

Busemeyer Pennington & Roese

Avoidance Gradient

Distance


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Predicting choices

  • People don’t know all of this

    • That makes their future predictions bad

  • Simulated choices do not take these factors into account

  • People also fail to take future events into account

    • Gilbert and future prediction

      • What is the influence of getting married, winning the lottery, or getting denied tenure on future happiness?


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Temporal effects

  • Temporal construal

    • Events in the future may be conceptualized more abstractly than near events

    • Specific events may have more emotional content

  • People have theories about spreading events over time

    • A desire for increasing sequences (e.g., salary)

    • A desire to spread out good outcomes


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