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Emotion, decision making & Time

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Emotion, decision making & Time. Attitudes and Behavior. Attitude-behavior (in)consistency Goodness of emotion as a predictor How much is current situation like the choice situation? People have difficulty judging future preferences What ice cream will you want tomorrow?.

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Presentation Transcript
attitudes and behavior
Attitudes and Behavior
  • Attitude-behavior (in)consistency
    • Goodness of emotion as a predictor
    • How much is current situation like the choice situation?
    • People have difficulty judging future preferences
      • What ice cream will you want tomorrow?
real and simulated choices
Real and Simulated choices
  • Why can’t people predict their future preferences?
    • People have a bad theory of motivational effects
      • Valuation and devaluation
      • Approach, avoidance, and time
    • Hard to simulate future motivational states
    • People cannot predict effects of time on choice
valuation and devaluation
Valuation and Devaluation
  • What is the effect of motivation on preference?
  • Valuation
  • Devaluation
example of devaluation
Example of Devaluation
  • This study uses an appetizing manipulation
  • Need to eat
    • Eating a small amount increases need to eat
  • Popcorn taste test:
    • High need to eat: Taste test first (ratings last)
    • Low need to eat: Taste test last (ratings first)
  • Rated attractiveness of consumer products
    • Food related (11 items)
    • Food unrelated (32 items: a variety of products)
    • Ratings mixed in with other unrelated tasks
approach avoidance and distance
Approach, avoidance, and distance
  • Goal gradients
    • Lewin; Miller
    • Change in goal strength with distance to goal
      • Physical distance or temporal distance

Approach Gradient

Recent Evidence:

Busemeyer Pennington & Roese

Avoidance Gradient

Distance

predicting choices
Predicting choices
  • People don’t know all of this
    • That makes their future predictions bad
  • Simulated choices do not take these factors into account
  • People also fail to take future events into account
    • Gilbert and future prediction
      • What is the influence of getting married, winning the lottery, or getting denied tenure on future happiness?
temporal effects
Temporal effects
  • Temporal construal
    • Events in the future may be conceptualized more abstractly than near events
    • Specific events may have more emotional content
  • People have theories about spreading events over time
    • A desire for increasing sequences (e.g., salary)
    • A desire to spread out good outcomes
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