9 designing the questionnaire
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9: Designing the Questionnaire. Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research. A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data

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9: Designing the Questionnaire

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9: Designing the Questionnaire


Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research

  • A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data

  • Questionnaire construction involves using a process that takes established sets of question/scale measurements and formats them into a complete instrument


Steps in Questionnaire Design

  • 1: Confirm research objectives

  • 2: Select appropriate data collection method

  • 3: Develop questions and scaling

  • 4: Determine layout and evaluate questionnaire

  • 5: Obtain initial client approval

  • 6: Pretest, revise, and finalize questionnaire

  • 7: Implement survey


Questions and Scaling

  • Type of Question Format

  • Unstructured Questions

    • Open-ended format where

    • respondent replies in their

    • own words.

  • Structured Questions

    • Closed-ended format where

    • respondent responds from a

    • set of possible responses.

  • Quality of Question

  • Bad Questions

    • Unanswerable.

    • Leading or loaded.

    • Double-barreled questions.


Guidelines for Evaluating the Adequacy of Questions

  • Use simple words; avoid technical words

  • Get the verbiage out

  • Avoid qualifying phrases (always, sometimes, never, etc.)

  • Ensure response categories are mutually exclusive

  • Ensure question and scale statements are meaningful to the respondents

  • Avoid arranging response categories in a manner that may bias responses

  • Do not double-barrel questions or response items


Questionnaire Design

  • Confirm the research objectives and data needs before designing the questionnaire

  • Include a general description of the study in the introduction section *

  • Ensure instructions are clear

  • Arrange questions in a logical order

  • Be mindful of coding needs when choosing response formats

  • The data amount vs. survey length tradeoff


Questionnaire Design

  • Begin with simple questions and progress to more difficult ones

  • Ask personal / sensitive / demographic questions at the end

  • Avoid asking questions using different measurement formats in the same section of the questionnaire

  • End with a thank-you statement


Role of Cover Letters / Intros

Initial Contacting Device

Encourage Participation

Provide Study Information

Communicate Study’s

Legitimacy

Improve Response Rates


Cover Letters/ Intros

  • Personalize letter

  • Identify sponsoring organization

  • State purpose and importance clearly

  • Promise anonymity or confidentiality

  • Clarify the general time frame of doing study


Cover Letters/ Intros

  • Acknowledge reasons for nonparticipation

  • Provide time requirements and any compensation

  • Explain completion date and where and how to return survey

  • Offer advance thank you statement


Supervisor instructions

Interviewer instructions

Screening forms

Quota sheets

Rating cards

Call record sheets

Other Documents Used in Collecting Data


Sample Screening-Quota Sheet


Sample Rating Card


Call Record Sheet Sample


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