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9: Designing the Questionnaire. Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research. A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data

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value of questionnaires in marketing research
Value of Questionnaires in Marketing Research
  • A questionnaire is a formal framework consisting of a set of questions/scales designed to generate primary data
  • Questionnaire construction involves using a process that takes established sets of question/scale measurements and formats them into a complete instrument
steps in questionnaire design
Steps in Questionnaire Design
  • 1: Confirm research objectives
  • 2: Select appropriate data collection method
  • 3: Develop questions and scaling
  • 4: Determine layout and evaluate questionnaire
  • 5: Obtain initial client approval
  • 6: Pretest, revise, and finalize questionnaire
  • 7: Implement survey
questions and scaling
Questions and Scaling
  • Type of Question Format
  • Unstructured Questions
    • Open-ended format where
    • respondent replies in their
    • own words.
  • Structured Questions
    • Closed-ended format where
    • respondent responds from a
    • set of possible responses.
  • Quality of Question
  • Bad Questions
    • Unanswerable.
    • Leading or loaded.
    • Double-barreled questions.
guidelines for evaluating the adequacy of questions
Guidelines for Evaluating the Adequacy of Questions
  • Use simple words; avoid technical words
  • Get the verbiage out
  • Avoid qualifying phrases (always, sometimes, never, etc.)
  • Ensure response categories are mutually exclusive
  • Ensure question and scale statements are meaningful to the respondents
  • Avoid arranging response categories in a manner that may bias responses
  • Do not double-barrel questions or response items
questionnaire design
Questionnaire Design
  • Confirm the research objectives and data needs before designing the questionnaire
  • Include a general description of the study in the introduction section *
  • Ensure instructions are clear
  • Arrange questions in a logical order
  • Be mindful of coding needs when choosing response formats
  • The data amount vs. survey length tradeoff
questionnaire design1
Questionnaire Design
  • Begin with simple questions and progress to more difficult ones
  • Ask personal / sensitive / demographic questions at the end
  • Avoid asking questions using different measurement formats in the same section of the questionnaire
  • End with a thank-you statement
role of cover letters intros
Role of Cover Letters / Intros

Initial Contacting Device

Encourage Participation

Provide Study Information

Communicate Study’s


Improve Response Rates

cover letters intros
Cover Letters/ Intros
  • Personalize letter
  • Identify sponsoring organization
  • State purpose and importance clearly
  • Promise anonymity or confidentiality
  • Clarify the general time frame of doing study
cover letters intros1
Cover Letters/ Intros
  • Acknowledge reasons for nonparticipation
  • Provide time requirements and any compensation
  • Explain completion date and where and how to return survey
  • Offer advance thank you statement
other documents used in collecting data
Supervisor instructions

Interviewer instructions

Screening forms

Quota sheets

Rating cards

Call record sheets

Other Documents Used in Collecting Data