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4.3 Succession. How ecosystems recover from disturbances. Primary & Secondary Succession. What is ecological succession? It is a series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time 2. What is primary succession? Succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists (no life)

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4 3 succession

4.3 Succession

How ecosystems recover from disturbances

primary secondary succession
Primary & Secondary Succession
  • What is ecological succession?
  • It is a series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
  • 2. What is primary succession?
  • Succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists (no life)
  • 3. When a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what type of succession follows?
  • Secondary succession
slide3

4. Describe the process of ecological succession

  • Disturbance occurs - > plants begin regrowth, more animals reenter community
  • 5. Why does secondary succession typically proceed faster than primary succesion?
  • Primary takes out the soil whereas secondary still has soil
venn diagram compare two types of ecological succession
Venn Diagram- Compare two types of ecological succession
  • Primary Both Secondary

- Occurs on newly exposed surfaces (Bare rock, no soil)

- Takes a longer amount of time

  • Occurs when a disturbance does not destroy the soil
  • Takes less time than primary

Ecosystems grow and become more mature and complex

picture panels following volcanic eruption
Picture Panels – Following volcanic eruption
  • - Correct order of panels: (from left-right)
  • 1, 3, 4, 2
  • 1: Volcano has erupted and covered area with rocks and ash. No organisms living here
  • 2: pioneer species arrive (lichen) and as they die and decay they weather rock to form soil
  • 3: soil accumulates, allowing grasses to grow
  • 4: more plant species, trees able to grow
climax communities check for key concepts bolded sentences
Climax Communities*Check for KEY concepts (Bolded sentences)
  • 8. After a natural disaster occurs in a healthy ecosystem, secondary succession will cause the ecosystem to return to its original ________.
  • Climax community
  • 9. The clearing of a rain forest is the example of a ______________ drastic enough to prevent the original climax community from reforming.
  • Human-caused disturbance
slide7

10. During _________ succession, chance plays a large role in determining which pioneer species arrives in an area first.

  • Primary
  • 11. What are the two kinds of disturbances that change ecosystems? Give an example of each
  • Natural – volcano, flood, hurricane, tornado
  • Human-caused – clearing rain forest, farmer clearing field, controlled burning
slide8

Many abiotic and biotic factors determine how quickly ecological succession can cause a climax community to develop in an area. Give two factors that contribute to developing a climax community.

No major disturbances occurring

  • Basic necessities: Sun, water, etc.
  • More soil forming
  • Pioneer species
  • Increasing plant species
  • More niches available

Development of a climax community

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