4 3 succession
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4.3 Succession. How ecosystems recover from disturbances. Primary & Secondary Succession. What is ecological succession? It is a series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time 2. What is primary succession? Succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists (no life)

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4.3 Succession

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4 3 succession

4.3 Succession

How ecosystems recover from disturbances


Primary secondary succession

Primary & Secondary Succession

  • What is ecological succession?

  • It is a series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time

  • 2. What is primary succession?

  • Succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists (no life)

  • 3. When a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what type of succession follows?

  • Secondary succession


4 3 succession

  • 4. Describe the process of ecological succession

  • Disturbance occurs - > plants begin regrowth, more animals reenter community

  • 5. Why does secondary succession typically proceed faster than primary succesion?

  • Primary takes out the soil whereas secondary still has soil


Venn diagram compare two types of ecological succession

Venn Diagram- Compare two types of ecological succession

  • PrimaryBothSecondary

- Occurs on newly exposed surfaces (Bare rock, no soil)

- Takes a longer amount of time

  • Occurs when a disturbance does not destroy the soil

  • Takes less time than primary

Ecosystems grow and become more mature and complex


Picture panels following volcanic eruption

Picture Panels – Following volcanic eruption

  • - Correct order of panels: (from left-right)

  • 1, 3, 4, 2

  • 1: Volcano has erupted and covered area with rocks and ash. No organisms living here

  • 2: pioneer species arrive (lichen) and as they die and decay they weather rock to form soil

  • 3: soil accumulates, allowing grasses to grow

  • 4: more plant species, trees able to grow


Climax communities check for key concepts bolded sentences

Climax Communities*Check for KEY concepts (Bolded sentences)

  • 8. After a natural disaster occurs in a healthy ecosystem, secondary succession will cause the ecosystem to return to its original ________.

  • Climax community

  • 9. The clearing of a rain forest is the example of a ______________ drastic enough to prevent the original climax community from reforming.

  • Human-caused disturbance


4 3 succession

  • 10. During _________ succession, chance plays a large role in determining which pioneer species arrives in an area first.

  • Primary

  • 11. What are the two kinds of disturbances that change ecosystems? Give an example of each

  • Natural – volcano, flood, hurricane, tornado

  • Human-caused – clearing rain forest, farmer clearing field, controlled burning


4 3 succession

Many abiotic and biotic factors determine how quickly ecological succession can cause a climax community to develop in an area. Give two factors that contribute to developing a climax community.

No major disturbances occurring

  • Basic necessities: Sun, water, etc.

  • More soil forming

  • Pioneer species

  • Increasing plant species

  • More niches available

Development of a climax community


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