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Culturally Responsive Pedagogy. The Body Ritual of the Nacerima. What are the significant aspects of the culture of the Nacerima? How might we consider the culture of our students in the classroom? What sorts of considerations might we have to make if we gained a child from Naceriman culture?

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The body ritual of the nacerima
The Body Ritual of the Nacerima

  • What are the significant aspects of the culture of the Nacerima?

  • How might we consider the culture of our students in the classroom?

    • What sorts of considerations might we have to make if we gained a child from Naceriman culture?

      • REALLY???

  • How do we shape our instruction based on misconceptions or stereotypes? How can we overcome this?

  • Culturally responsive teaching
    Culturally Responsive Teaching

    • Respond to this quote in your K-W-L

    • “Most white children have spent their academic lives looking into distorted mirrors of their history and culture which only reflected people like themselves: while most children of color have pointed toward a narrow window, which offered an obstructed view of the world and their place in it.”

    • -Mizell, Bennett, Bisse-Bowman, & Morin

    Your classroom of 30 students
    Your Classroom of 30 Students

    19 white

    17 from two parent home

    15 will live in single-parent family at some point

    12 never complete college

    10 born to unmarried parents

    10 poor at some point

    10 a year or behind in school

    8 live with only one parent

    6 born poor

    6 born to mother without hs diploma

    6 Hispanic

    6 receive food stamps

    Your classroom continued
    Your Classroom, continued

    6 with foreign born mother

    5 are poor today

    5 African American

    4 no health insurance

    4 from working poor

    4 born to teenage mother

    4 will never graduate from hs

    1 might be Native American

    3 might be gay or bi-sexual

    3 disabled

    2 at less than half poverty level

    2 struggle speaking English

    1 Asian-American

    Several biracial or bicultural

    Every 35 classrooms: 1 student killed by gunfire before 20

    Key terms
    Key Terms

    • Culture

      • Way of life common to group of people; includes knowledge deemed important, shared meanings, norms, values, attitudes, ideals, and view of the world

    • Ethnic Group

      • Inviduals within larger culture who share a racial or cultural identity and a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes and who consider themselves members of a distinct group or subculture

    Key terms1
    Key Terms

    • Race

      • Used to distinguish people on the basis of biological traits and characteristics

    • Minorities

      • Groups of people who share certain characteristics and are smaller in number than the majority of the population


    • Positive and Negative Stereotypes

      • Lead to false assumptions about the ability levels of certain students

    • Positive stereotypes

      • ‘Billy, you’re Korean. There’s no reason that you can’t do the work!’

    • Negative stereotypes

      • ‘Hannah, you need to act less hysterical when you get an answer wrong. Act like a man, not a girl!’

    Why don t kids learn
    Why don’t kids learn?

    • 3 theories explain why students fail to learn

      • Deficit theory

      • Expectation theory

      • Cultural difference theory

    Deficit theory
    Deficit Theory

    • Some students lag because:

      • Values, language patterns, behaviors learned at home don’t mesh with culture of U.S. schools

      • Not familiar with ‘language of power’

        • Affects student ability to process information and maintain pace with peers

    Expectation theory
    Expectation Theory

    • Students of certain ethnic or racial groups fail to learn because teachers EXPECT them to fail to learn!!!

      • Self-fulfilling cycle

    Cultural difference theory
    Cultural Difference Theory

    • Academic Problems can be overcome if teachers bridge the gap separating schools and home

      • Recognize, use cultural traditions and practices to reach students

    Who cares
    Who cares?

    • Why is it important for students to see theirreflection in the curriculum: to see themselves and their ancestors and their cultures represented in pages of the curriculum?

      • Not just to feel good but because their ancestors really did play integral roles in the history of this country

      • Promotes meaningful learning

      • Familiarity to students


    • Can we really

      • Represent all persons equally?

      • Represent all points of view?

      • Build a curriculum that is honest and based on current scholarship yet promotes good citizenship and attitudes of civic participation?

      • Have a curriculum that raises controversial issues yet enables students to become analytical and thoughtful?

    Maybe not, but we can try to constantly address these issues through asking…

    What materials, instructional examples and content will I use to achieve learning goals?

    • Resource: Culturally Responsive Teaching: Lesson Planning for Elementary and Middle Grades by J. Irvine & B. Armento

    Four constant curricular principles
    Four Constant Curricular Principles through asking…

    • Inclusiveness

    • Alternative Perspectives

    • Commonalities as well as diversity

    • Student-constructed examples

    Inclusiveness through asking…

    Child’s voice and heritage should be heard

    Authentic cultural data, literature, music, art, artifacts, primary source materials and cultural history used in curriculum to represent range of relevant persons and groups that should be included in the study

    Inclusive, rich and varied array

    Question is NOT: Who is my class this year and how can I represent them in the curriculum? (limited view of inclusion)

    Question IS: During the time period/issue/event/genre/scientific theme we are studying, who is relevant and should be included in the study

    Teachers will need to do research to answer this question and students should be a part of this process. By including students, you are keeping true to the idea that students are inquirers with the teacher, and any one source will not usually provide all necessary information.

    Alternative perspectives
    Alternative Perspectives through asking…

    • Why?

      • To see issues from a range of perspectives

      • Reach a consensus

      • Have more tolerance for those with differing views

      • New facts/issues arise

      • Topic takes on new complexity

        • (example, “westward expansion”, “slavery”, “unions” from view of N. Americans, Af. Americans, working class)

      • Gives a more complete view of the whole

      • Challenged to address conflicting interpretations

    Commonalties as well as diversity
    Commonalties as Well as Diversity! through asking…

    • Stress both

    • Recognize bonds that unite all humans

      • Common values of society

      • Principles of justice, equity, value of the individual, importance of democratic ideals

    • Full range of human diversity should be recognized

      • The factor that makes each person unique and interesting

    • Identifying with groups

      • Provides pride, self-esteem, self-knowledge and identity

    • Doesn’t have to conflict with respect for others’ groups

    • Do not over generalize about members of any group

      • Ethnic, gender, cultural, religious-may not all hold similar beliefs, values, or patterns of behavior as others in the group.

    Student constructed examples
    Student Constructed Examples through asking…

    • Concrete representations, images, metaphors, examples and graphic organizers

    • Generated by students and teachers to give meaning and depth to task

    Classroom strategies
    Classroom Strategies through asking…

    • Avoid segregated classrooms

      • ‘boys vs. girls’

      • Prevent ‘self-segregation’

    • Mobility

      • Move around the room to stay ‘in touch’ with all students

    • Cooperative Education

      • Collaborative groups can helps some students


    Classroom strategies1
    Classroom Strategies through asking…

    • Displays

      • Avoid over- or under-representation of specific groups or gender

    • Eye contact

      • Not all students are comfortable with it!

    • Be aware of personal space and student cultural perspectives about being touched

    • Build a relationship with family

    Classroom strategies2
    Classroom Strategies through asking…

    • Avoid calling on the first student with a response!

    • Be aware of wait time!

    • Assign tasks randomly rather than relying on specific students

    • Avoid unequal punishment

      • Boys tend to be punished more than girls

    Culture and you
    Culture and You through asking…

    For 10 minutes, think of at least 10 different things that might be considered as part of YOUR culture. This might include






    Family relationships



    Regional ties



    Local ties

    Family education level

    Critical autobiography
    Critical Autobiography through asking…

    • Who you are and what you know influence what you teach

    • If we have different experiences, cultural backgrounds, or races from our students – we have difficulty meeting their needs – a cultural mismatch. We may misinterpret their behavior as misbehavior or leave their experiences out of the curriculum. When planning lessons-especially in social studies-we must reflect on how we can take student experiences and cultures into account.

    • Due on October 24th

    For next time
    For Next Time… through asking…

    • Read Lies My Teacher Told Me Chapters 1-4

    • Cultural Autobiography Due

    • Be prepared to participate in a Literature Circle.