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Starter task . Games were seen as a means of instilling certain virtues into players. What moral qualities were seen as worthwhile aspects of the game?. Leadership Integrity Loyalty Bravery Decision making ‘Correct’ behaviour Concept of fair play – obeying by the rules. June 04 - (ii )

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Starter task

Games were seen as a means of instilling certain virtues into players. What moral qualities were seen as worthwhile aspects of the game?

  • Leadership

  • Integrity

  • Loyalty

  • Bravery

  • Decision making

  • ‘Correct’ behaviour

  • Concept of fair play – obeying by the rules

June 04 - (ii)

  • Run by older boys/sixth formers/organising own events;

  • Teamwork/loyalty;

  • Captain/leadership;

  • Physical/hard work/fitness;

  • Tactics/decision-making;

  • Competitive in competitive society;

  • Self-discipline/work under pressure;

  • Testing courage and bravery;

  • Lead by example;

  • Sportsmanship;max 4

Jan 04 - Qu3

  • (a) (i)

  • Football/rowing

  • 1.original versions from villages;

  • 2.played regularly/in leisure time;

  • 3.older boys in charge/self governing;

  • 4.developed rules/rationalisation;

  • 5.equal numbers on teams/devised limited space/introduced boundaries;

  • 6.inter-house/inter-school;

  • 7.improved equipment/kit/technological developments/coaching;(4 marks)

  • (a) (ii)

  • control/occupy boys free time/safety;

  • 2.preparing boys for roles in society;

  • 3.develop athleticism among boys/physical endeavour and moral integrity;

  • 4.adherence to letter and spirit of sport/sportsmanship/fair play;

  • 5.promote team building/loyalty;

  • 6.develop leadership;

  • 7.develop muscular Christianity;

  • 8.promote self-discipline/self control;

  • 9.character building;(5 marks)

3 (a)5 marks for 5 of.

  • (sub max 3, don't need to make a direct link)

    CharacteristicsReflection of society

    Played occasionally10. Little free time

    Few rules11. Uneducated so no written rules

    Violent/injuries12. Harsh lifestyles

    Male13. Little money

    Low structure/unlimited time 14. Little transport/mobility numbers of participants

    Limited facilities/equipment needed

    Working classes

    Force rather than skill


    (b)4 marks for 4 of:

  • Developed rules

  • Skills

  • Strategic/tactics

  • Kit to distinguish teams

  • Division of labour/e.g. attack defence/leadership/captain

  • Boundaries e.g. pitches

  • Facility/equipment developed

  • Competition - house/inter school

Jan 09

Home learning - What is athleticism?

Fanatical devotion to both the physical side of playing sport, but also the development of moral integrity

At university their was a desire for competition between former public school boys – therefore rules needed to be established for each game.

Many major sporting activities were developed through public schools, can you list some?

Process of codification led to many groups being set up to arbitrate over areas of disagreement – these groups become the original Governing Bodies of sport


Jan 03 – a & b

Exam question

Qu 2

(a) 3 marks for three from:

1 Rationalised;

2 Introduction of rules/fairness;

3 Limits/boundaries to time/space/structural;

4 Restrictions for player behaviour/conduct/less violent/more civilised;

5 Development of equipment/kit;

6 Codification of rules. 3 marks

(b) Sub max 2 marks:

Athleticism (physical values)

1 Manliness/physical/robustness

2 Pursuit of physical endeavour;/effort/striving;

3 Appreciating the value of healthy exercise/fitness;

4 Accepting the discipline of rule-regulated activity;

5 Accepting the discipline of physical preparation;

6 Moral integrity.

Sub max 2 marks:

Muscular Christianity (ethical values)

7 Working for a team/team work/putting team first/team spirit/loyalty to the cause;

8 Conforming to the rules/authority/principle of fair play/sportsmanship;

9 Playing honourably more important that winning;

10 Use of ‘God-given’ abilities;

11 Performance dedicated to God.

Must cover both concepts for 3 max 3 marks

Rational recreation (1850-1890)

As games were developing in the public schools, society itself was developing

In the UK was a change in working practices

Largely rural City-based manufacturing

farming communities industries

MAIN REASON – INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. It permitted greater use of machinery & therefore increased the production of goods

Industrial Revolution

  • Worked long, regulated hours – as machines never turned off

  • Move to the cities – URBANISATION

  • Live close enough to walk to work (usually in cramped terrace housing - built especially for housing the workforce)

    Leisure time changed completely

  • Leisure no longer governed by need to work on the land as farmers, now governed by the hours the factory demanded

  • Became normal to work a 12 hour day for six days a week

  • Sunday was day off BUT day of rest, so leisure time was very restricted

Changes for the working classes

These were people who made money out of industrialization.

  • Factory owners

  • Doctors

  • Clergy

    They wanted their sons (and daughters) to be educated and they founded many schools for that purpose

    These schools followed the same sporting pattern of the public schools.

  • Saw the value of sport – character building, teamwork, sense of fair-play

Growing middle class – largely as a result of the industrial revolution

Invented new sports to fill their leisure time:

  • Hockey

  • Badminton

  • Tennis

    They cycled & walked for recreation

    Factory Owners & Churches provided facilities for games to be played

  • Between 1860 & 1890 most of todays modern sports were invented

    & formalised

    This sudden boom in sport is part of RATIONAL RECREATION


They did not want the working classes involved for two mains reasons:


The rules governing a sport were often made to exclude the working classes. Only the gentleman amateur was permitted to play.

What sport did not extend to the separation of classes?

Ex-public school boys formed most of the original teams/clubs who dominated the F.A. Cup

BUT in the industrial north & midlands. Teams of working class players were beginning to emerge

  • One of the problems of urbanisation was the lack of SPACE to play sports

  • Often only land available was land belonging to the local factory owner or church

    The use of this land lead to:

  • Many factory- and church –based teams

  • Reduction of the working week to permit a half-day on Saturdays

Church groups – Everton, Bolton, Fulham, Aston Villa & Barnsley

Old Boys teams – Leicester

Employee's team – Manchester City

Early Closure team – Sheffield Wednesday

  • Workers having a half day would pay and watch their local football team

  • Paying spectators gave the teams money which they then used to bring in better players

    NOT ALL SPORTS became professional at this time. Rugby League was quick to follow in the north of England.

    Many sports remained strictly amateur until quite recently, WHY?


Jan 05 – Q2

Qu 2


1boys brought activities from villages and schools;

2played regularly in free time;

3devised initial rules/individual schools versions;

4(this allowed) inter House competitions;

5later adopted standardised rules;

6(this allowed) inter-school competitions;

7structural changes boundaries/time limits/numbers on teams/strategies/roles/skills/ techniques/kit;

8Leadership/captain roles/games elite. (3 marks)

(do not credit fair play)


1.British Empire/colonising other cultures/exporting British traditions;


3.Teachers to schools/blues/colours;

4.Clergy through church;

5.Employers through employees;

6.Establishing the modern sport club structure/regional/national;

7.Creating National Governing bodies/administration structures;

8.Ex public school boys high status/jobs/influential/government;

9.University 3 marks

(do not credit old boys on their own/armed forces)

  • A table showing the social changes leading to rationalisation of sport –

    So the pre-industrial & post-industrial Britain

    Use page 169

    2. Exam Questions –

  • Factors affecting rationalisation

    June 03 – Q3 (b)

    Jan 04 – Q2

Home learning


1.Increase in number of fixtures/competitions;

2.more widespread playing of sport required nationally agreed rule structure/regulations;

3.different versions developed by different schools; set up competitions/leagues; with professionalism/commercialism.


6.Desire to maintain control of sport;

7.preservation of amateur ideals;

8.maintain exclusivity of sport/not mix with lower classes;

9.did not like losing to professionals.5 marks

Jan 04 Qu 2

At the beginning of the 20th Century, the extent and nature of a person’s participation in sport were influenced by their social class and gender.

(b)Discuss the reasons why people from the working class had fewer opportunities to participate than those from the upper and middle classes.(4 marks)


  • Lack of leisure/free time;

  • Lack of money/resources/diet/health/facilities;

  • Restrictive membership schemes/regulations;

  • Amateur regulations;

  • Limited demand for professionals in sport;

  • Traditional working class (animal/cruel) sports frowned upon/considered uncivilised/banned;

  • Encouraged to become spectators;

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