Starter task . Games were seen as a means of instilling certain virtues into players. What moral qualities were seen as worthwhile aspects of the game?. Leadership Integrity Loyalty Bravery Decision making ‘Correct’ behaviour Concept of fair play – obeying by the rules. June 04 - (ii )
Games were seen as a means of instilling certain virtues into players. What moral qualities were seen as worthwhile aspects of the game?
June 04 - (ii)
Jan 04 - Qu3
3 (a)5 marks for 5 of.
CharacteristicsReflection of society
Played occasionally10. Little free time
Few rules11. Uneducated so no written rules
Violent/injuries12. Harsh lifestyles
Male13. Little money
Low structure/unlimited time 14. Little transport/mobility numbers of participants
Limited facilities/equipment needed
Force rather than skill
(b)4 marks for 4 of:
At university their was a desire for competition between former public school boys – therefore rules needed to be established for each game.
Many major sporting activities were developed through public schools, can you list some?
Process of codification led to many groups being set up to arbitrate over areas of disagreement – these groups become the original Governing Bodies of sport
Jan 03 – a & b
(a) 3 marks for three from:
2 Introduction of rules/fairness;
3 Limits/boundaries to time/space/structural;
4 Restrictions for player behaviour/conduct/less violent/more civilised;
5 Development of equipment/kit;
6 Codification of rules. 3 marks
(b) Sub max 2 marks:
Athleticism (physical values)
2 Pursuit of physical endeavour;/effort/striving;
3 Appreciating the value of healthy exercise/fitness;
4 Accepting the discipline of rule-regulated activity;
5 Accepting the discipline of physical preparation;
6 Moral integrity.
Sub max 2 marks:
Muscular Christianity (ethical values)
7 Working for a team/team work/putting team first/team spirit/loyalty to the cause;
8 Conforming to the rules/authority/principle of fair play/sportsmanship;
9 Playing honourably more important that winning;
10 Use of ‘God-given’ abilities;
11 Performance dedicated to God.
Must cover both concepts for 3 max 3 marks
Rational recreation (1850-1890)
As games were developing in the public schools, society itself was developing
In the UK was a change in working practices
Largely rural City-based manufacturing
farming communities industries
MAIN REASON – INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. It permitted greater use of machinery & therefore increased the production of goods
Leisure time changed completely
These were people who made money out of industrialization.
They wanted their sons (and daughters) to be educated and they founded many schools for that purpose
These schools followed the same sporting pattern of the public schools.
Invented new sports to fill their leisure time:
They cycled & walked for recreation
Factory Owners & Churches provided facilities for games to be played
This sudden boom in sport is part of RATIONAL RECREATION
INITALLY THE UPPER & MIDDLE CLASSES WANTED TO KEEP THEIR SPORTS TO THEMSELVES.
They did not want the working classes involved for two mains reasons:
The rules governing a sport were often made to exclude the working classes. Only the gentleman amateur was permitted to play.
Ex-public school boys formed most of the original teams/clubs who dominated the F.A. Cup
BUT in the industrial north & midlands. Teams of working class players were beginning to emerge
The use of this land lead to:
Church groups – Everton, Bolton, Fulham, Aston Villa & Barnsley
Old Boys teams – Leicester
Employee's team – Manchester City
Early Closure team – Sheffield Wednesday
NOT ALL SPORTS became professional at this time. Rugby League was quick to follow in the north of England.
Many sports remained strictly amateur until quite recently, WHY?
Jan 05 – Q2
1boys brought activities from villages and schools;
2played regularly in free time;
3devised initial rules/individual schools versions;
4(this allowed) inter House competitions;
5later adopted standardised rules;
6(this allowed) inter-school competitions;
7structural changes boundaries/time limits/numbers on teams/strategies/roles/skills/ techniques/kit;
8Leadership/captain roles/games elite. (3 marks)
(do not credit fair play)
1.British Empire/colonising other cultures/exporting British traditions;
3.Teachers to schools/blues/colours;
4.Clergy through church;
5.Employers through employees;
6.Establishing the modern sport club structure/regional/national;
7.Creating National Governing bodies/administration structures;
8.Ex public school boys high status/jobs/influential/government;
9.University 3 marks
(do not credit old boys on their own/armed forces)
So the pre-industrial & post-industrial Britain
Use page 169
2. Exam Questions –
June 03 – Q3 (b)
Jan 04 – Q2
1.Increase in number of fixtures/competitions;
2.more widespread playing of sport required nationally agreed rule structure/regulations;
3.different versions developed by different schools;
4.to set up competitions/leagues;
5.deal with professionalism/commercialism.
6.Desire to maintain control of sport;
7.preservation of amateur ideals;
8.maintain exclusivity of sport/not mix with lower classes;
9.did not like losing to professionals.5 marks
Jan 04 Qu 2
At the beginning of the 20th Century, the extent and nature of a person’s participation in sport were influenced by their social class and gender.
(b)Discuss the reasons why people from the working class had fewer opportunities to participate than those from the upper and middle classes.(4 marks)