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Stem Cells. By Teo Xin Hui (27) 1A1. Contents: What are cells? Stem Cells Embryonic Stem Cells Side Track Adult Stem Cells Treatments. What are cells?. The cell is the basic unit of life And is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing

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Stem cells

Stem Cells

By TeoXinHui (27) 1A1


Contents:

What are cells?

Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells

Side Track

Adult Stem Cells

Treatments


What are cells
What are cells?

  • The cell is the basic unit of life

  • And is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing

  • And is often called the building block of life.


What are cells1
What are cells?

  • There are unicellular organisms which are made out of just one cell

  • Or multi-cellular organisms which are made out of millions of cells.

  • The human being has over a 100 trillion cells.


What are cells2
What are cells?

  • Cells in multi-cellular organisms do lots of work that make our bodies function.

  • And they use something called division of labour in which each type of cell has evolved to a specific shape to perform one specific task.


Introduction to stem cells
Introduction to Stem Cells

Please click black box for video


Stem cells1
Stem Cells

  • These, are probably, the most useful cell in multi-cellular organisms.

  • In mammals, there are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.


Embryonic stem cells
Embryonic Stem cells

  • Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells

  • Derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, an early-stage embryo.


Embryonic stem cells1
Embryonic Stem cells

  • Embryonic stem cells are distinguished by two distinctive properties:their pluripotency and their ability to replicate indefinitely.

  • They are able to differentiate into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult body.


Side track potencies totipotency
Side Track: PotenciesTotipotency

  • Is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism.

  • Totipotent cells include spores and zygotes which are the initial cells formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction.


Side track potencies pluripotency
Side Track: PotenciesPluripotency

  • Refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers:

  • Endoderm (interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs)

  • Mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, urogenital)

  • Ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous system).


Side track potencies multipotency
Side Track: PotenciesMultipotency

  • Have the potential to give rise to cells from multiple, but a limited number of lineages.

  • An example of a multipotent stem cell is a hematopoietic cell — a blood stem cell that can develop into several types of blood cells, but cannot develop into brain cells or other types of cells.


Side track potencies other potencies
Side Track: PotenciesOther potencies

  • They include ogliopotency and unipotency.

  • Ogliopotency refers to the ability of progenitor cells to differentiate into only a few cell types

  • Unipotency refers to a cell that has the capacity to develop into only one type of tissue or cell type.


Getting back adult stem cell
Getting Back…Adult Stem Cell

  • Adult stem cells are mutlipotent

  • So they have limits to what cells they can develop into unlike the embryonic stem cells.

  • However, there are pluripotent adult stem cells but they are rare and generally small in number


Getting back adult stem cell1
Getting Back…Adult Stem Cell

  • However, there are pluripotent adult stem cells but they are rare and generally small in number

  • But can be found in a number of tissues including umbilical cord blood. This is why parents are given the option of storing their babies’ umbilical cord blood, so if the babies develop cancer or other such diseases when they grow up, they can use these stem cells to save their child.


Getting back adult stem cell2
Getting Back…Adult Stem Cell

  • But can be found in a number of tissues including umbilical cord blood.

  • This is why parents are given the option of storing their babies’ umbilical cord blood, so if the babies develop cancer or other such diseases when they grow up, they can use these stem cells to save their child.


Treatment
Treatment

  • Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment of human disease.

  • A number of adult stem cell therapies already exist, particularly bone marrow transplants that are used to treat leukemia.


Treatment1
Treatment

  • In the future, medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases including cancer, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, amongst a number of other impairments and conditions.




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