Stem cells

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What are Stem Cells?. Stem Cells are extraordinary because:They can divide and make identical copies ofthemselves over and over again (Self-Renewal)Remain Unspecialized with no ?specific' function or become . . . . Specialized (Differentiated) w/ the potential to produce over 200 different

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Stem cells

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1. Stem cells By: Dr SM Koruji, Ph.D

2. What are Stem Cells? Stem Cells are extraordinary because: They can divide and make identical copies of themselves over and over again (Self-Renewal) Remain Unspecialized with no ‘specific’ function or become . . . . Specialized (Differentiated) w/ the potential to produce over 200 different types of cells in the body.

3. Diagram of stem cells to differentiated cells

6. The Major Types of Stem Cells

7. Embryonic Stem Cells

8. Adult Stem Cells

9. The types of Stem Cells based on potential Totipotent stem cells Pluripotent stem cells EG EC Multipotent stem cells

11. Pluripotent stem cells

12. Advantages and Disadvantages to Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells.

15. Why is Stem Cell Research So Important to All of Us? Stem cells allow us to study how organisms grow and develop over time. Stem cells can replace diseased or damaged cells that can not heal or renew themselves. We can test different substances (drugs and chemicals) on stem cells. We can get a better understanding of our “genetic machinery.”

16. Why the Controversy Over Stem cells? Embryonic Stem cells are derived from extra blastocysts that would otherwise be discarded following IVF. Extracting stem cells destroys the developing blastocyst (embryo). -Questions for Consideration- Is an embryo a person? Is it morally acceptable to use embryos for research? When do we become “human beings?”

17. Therapeutic Possibilities of Stem Cell Research

19. What Human Diseases are Currently Being Treated with Stem Cells? Parkinson’s Disease Leukemia (Bone Marrow Transplants) Skin Grafts resulting from severe burns Stem Cell Therapy has the Potential to: Regenerate tissues/organs Cure diseases like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, etc.

20. Olfactory Bulb Stem Cells Primitive stem cells that normally feed the constant, life-long regeneration of odor-detecting nerves Like embryonic stem cells, they develop into many different types of cells in the right chemical or cellular environment Fairly accessible, readily obtained in all individuals and easy to grow and multiply Potential non-embryonic source for cells that could prove useful in replacing nerve cells lost due to injury or diseases like ALS and Parkinson's Transplant not subject to immune rejection

21. Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS) Mouse experiments Neuronal stem cells transplanted into spinal cord Significantly prolonged lives by becoming neurons and interacting with existing neurons Symptoms developed at 137 days verses 90 days Treated mice lived 2 months longer

22. Bone Repair ? NJ Institute of Technology – use of stem cells to induce bone repair ? Adult Stem Cells mixed with biomaterials known as scaffolds to regenerate bone growth ? Stem Cells from one person can successfully implant in another ? Diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer surgeries ? Also testing biomaterials that may repair cartilage, tendons and neuronal tissue

23. Spinal Cord Injury

24. Retinal Degeneration ? Mice predisposed for Retinitis Pigmentosa: a degenerative disease that destroys retinas ? Injected bone marrow derived stem cells into the back of mouse eyes during development ? Dramatically curtailed retinal degeneration ? Completely normal vasculature, improved retinal tissue and light response ? Disorders of the retina that have vascular and neuronal degeneration: genetic disorders known collectively as retinitis pigmentosa

25. Biological Pacemaker Human Embryonic Stem Cells genetically engineered and coaxed to become heart cells Clusters of cells beat on their own triggered the unified beating of rat heart muscle cells Triggered regular beating when implanted in guinea pigs Cells responded to drugs used to slow or speed up heart rate Use genetic engineering to customize the pacing rate of the cells

26. Cystic Fibrosis: Stem Cell-Gene Therapy Approach

27. Cosmetic and Reconstructive Surgery Conventional soft tissue implants lose 40 to 60% of volume Stem cell generated natural tissues instead of synthetic implants Avoid problems of saline and silicon Won’t shrink or lose shape Mouse experiments: bone marrow stem cells placed under the skin for four weeks; stem cells differentiated into fat generating cells and implants retained original size and shape Breast cancer surgery, post-cancer facial soft tissue reconstruction, trauma surgeries

28. Cloning

29. Cloning Defined Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

30. Asexual Reproduction Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

31. Cloning Dolly Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

32. Cloning A Sheep Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

33. Human Stem Cell Production Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

34. Removing Nucleus Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

35. Nuclear transfer Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

36. Coning for use in Stem Cells Cloning techniques for creating stem cells Therapeutic cloning Reproductive cloning

37. IVF – In Vitro Fertilization Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint Every cell contains a complete copy of “the blueprint of life” DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides - 4 bases (A,G,T,C) 23 pairs of chromosomes If unwound and tied together, human DNA in one cell would stretch ~ 5 feet, but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide! Genes are specific sequences of DNA, each of which “codes” for a protein with a specific function Genes are copied each time a cell divides, passing on the blueprint

40. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

41. How many are needed for fertilization? Natural conception 20,000,000 Intra-uterine insemination 1,000,000 In-vitro fertilization (IVF) 10,000 Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) 1

42. The Science of Transgenics

43. Notice that the mutagenic treatment changed a single base in the gene sequence. This change created a resistant plant because the gene product targeted by herbicide is not affected by the herbicide. This is a change of gene in the plant; a foreign gene was NOT involved. Notice that the mutagenic treatment changed a single base in the gene sequence. This change created a resistant plant because the gene product targeted by herbicide is not affected by the herbicide. This is a change of gene in the plant; a foreign gene was NOT involved.

44. Thank you

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