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The Immune System. Pathogens. Defined: microorganisms that cause disease Viruses : turn cells into virus making factories. Pathogens. Defined: microorganisms that cause disease Viruses : turn cells into virus making factories Bacteria : prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals.

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pathogens
Pathogens
  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease
    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories
pathogens1
Pathogens
  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease
    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories
    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals
pathogens2
Pathogens
  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease
    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories
    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals
    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients
pathogens3
Pathogens
  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease
    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories
    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals
    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients
    • Protozoans: single cells protista (eukaryotes)

Plasmodium causes malaria

pathogens4
Pathogens
  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease
    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories
    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals
    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients
    • Protozoans: single cells. Protists (eukaryotes)
    • Parasites: grow and feed on a host

tapeworms

transmission
Transmission
  • Some carried by wind, water, direct contact, indirect contact…
  • Vectors: organism that carries a pathogen

Examples:

    • Malaria – mosquitos carry the protozoan
    • Black Death – carried by fleas of mice
    • West Nile Virus – carried by birds, but spread by mosquitoes
the skin
The Skin
  • 1st line of defense: physical barrier
  • Oils & sweat destroy some pathogens
    • Some pathogens burst…some shrivel

bacteria

bacteria

Skin

mucus membranes
Mucus Membranes
  • Coat the openings of the body
        • Nose, mouth, ears, eyes, genitals, anus
  • Lined with cilia & sticky fluids to trap pathogens
white blood cells

YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

White Blood Cells
  • Job: Search & destroy
white blood cells1

YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

White Blood Cells
  • Job: Search & destroy
  • Type 1: Phagocytes
    • surround & engulf invaders by phagocytosis
white blood cells2

YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

White Blood Cells
  • Job: Search & destroy
  • Type 1: Phagocytes
    • surround & engulf invaders by phagocytosis
  • Type 2: Lymphocytes
    • create antibodies & destroy infected body cells
slide13

phagocyte

Blood

stream

bacteria

phagocyte

defense proteins
Defense Proteins
  • Antibodies
    • Created & released by lymphocytes
    • Attach to antigens (like handcuffs)

antibody

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

lymphocyte

Y

Y

Y

defense proteins1
Defense Proteins
  • Antibodies
    • Created & released by lymphocytes
    • Attach to antigens (like handcuffs)
  • How do they kill?
    • Causes pathogens to clump
    • Weakens the cell membrane of the pathogen
slide16

B CELLS MAKE ANTIBODIES

ANTIBODIES ATTACH TO ANTIGENS OF THE PATHOGEN

Blood

Stream

B

B

B

B

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

phagocyte

Y

Y

Y

B

B

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

ANTIBODIES CAUSE THE PATHOGENS TO CLUMP TOGETHER

PHAGOCYTE DESTROYS PATHOGENS

slide17

Defense Proteins

virus

Virus RNA

New virus

New virus

New virus

New virus

Interferon

Interferon

Interferon

New virus

Infected!

Not Infected!

  • Interferon
    • Cell becomes infected by virus
    • Infected cell sends interferon to healthy neighbors
    • Interferon causes healthy cell to create defense enzymes
    • Healthy cell able to fight virus
vaccination
Vaccination
  • Prevents infections (not a cure)
  • Vaccination process
    • Weakened pathogen is injected
    • Immune system produces…
      • Antibodies to fight the weakened pathogen
      • Memory cells for future infections
  • Goal: Speed up immune response if you encounter the actual virus
review
Review
  • Which part of our immune system coats the openings of the body?
  • How do lymphocytes differ from phagocytes?
  • What are antibodies and how do they help keep us from harm?
  • Which pathogen…

absorbs nutrients from living tissue?

are prokaryotic?

  • Which illness is spread by mice?
  • What is the vector of malaria?
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