The immune system
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The Immune System. Pathogens. Defined: microorganisms that cause disease Viruses : turn cells into virus making factories. Pathogens. Defined: microorganisms that cause disease Viruses : turn cells into virus making factories Bacteria : prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals.

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The Immune System

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The immune system

The Immune System


Pathogens

Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories


Pathogens1

Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals


Pathogens2

Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals

    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients


Pathogens3

Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals

    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients

    • Protozoans: single cells protista (eukaryotes)

Plasmodium causes malaria


Pathogens4

Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals

    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients

    • Protozoans: single cells. Protists (eukaryotes)

    • Parasites: grow and feed on a host

tapeworms


Transmission

Transmission

  • Some carried by wind, water, direct contact, indirect contact…

  • Vectors: organism that carries a pathogen

    Examples:

    • Malaria – mosquitos carry the protozoan

    • Black Death – carried by fleas of mice

    • West Nile Virus – carried by birds, but spread by mosquitoes


The skin

The Skin

  • 1st line of defense: physical barrier

  • Oils & sweat destroy some pathogens

    • Some pathogens burst…some shrivel

bacteria

bacteria

Skin


Mucus membranes

Mucus Membranes

  • Coat the openings of the body

    • Nose, mouth, ears, eyes, genitals, anus

  • Lined with cilia & sticky fluids to trap pathogens


  • White blood cells

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

    White Blood Cells

    • Job: Search & destroy


    White blood cells1

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

    White Blood Cells

    • Job: Search & destroy

    • Type 1: Phagocytes

      • surround & engulf invaders by phagocytosis


    White blood cells2

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

    White Blood Cells

    • Job: Search & destroy

    • Type 1: Phagocytes

      • surround & engulf invaders by phagocytosis

    • Type 2: Lymphocytes

      • create antibodies & destroy infected body cells


    The immune system

    phagocyte

    Blood

    stream

    bacteria

    phagocyte


    Defense proteins

    Defense Proteins

    • Antibodies

      • Created & released by lymphocytes

      • Attach to antigens (like handcuffs)

    antibody

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    lymphocyte

    Y

    Y

    Y


    Defense proteins1

    Defense Proteins

    • Antibodies

      • Created & released by lymphocytes

      • Attach to antigens (like handcuffs)

    • How do they kill?

      • Causes pathogens to clump

      • Weakens the cell membrane of the pathogen


    The immune system

    B CELLS MAKE ANTIBODIES

    ANTIBODIES ATTACH TO ANTIGENS OF THE PATHOGEN

    Blood

    Stream

    B

    B

    B

    B

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    phagocyte

    Y

    Y

    Y

    B

    B

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    ANTIBODIES CAUSE THE PATHOGENS TO CLUMP TOGETHER

    PHAGOCYTE DESTROYS PATHOGENS


    The immune system

    Defense Proteins

    virus

    Virus RNA

    New virus

    New virus

    New virus

    New virus

    Interferon

    Interferon

    Interferon

    New virus

    Infected!

    Not Infected!

    • Interferon

      • Cell becomes infected by virus

      • Infected cell sends interferon to healthy neighbors

      • Interferon causes healthy cell to create defense enzymes

      • Healthy cell able to fight virus


    Vaccination

    Vaccination

    • Prevents infections (not a cure)

    • Vaccination process

      • Weakened pathogen is injected

      • Immune system produces…

        • Antibodies to fight the weakened pathogen

        • Memory cells for future infections

    • Goal: Speed up immune response if you encounter the actual virus


    Review

    Review

    • Which part of our immune system coats the openings of the body?

    • How do lymphocytes differ from phagocytes?

    • What are antibodies and how do they help keep us from harm?

    • Which pathogen…

      absorbs nutrients from living tissue?

      are prokaryotic?

    • Which illness is spread by mice?

    • What is the vector of malaria?


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