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Emergencies. Module 8. Objectives. After this module you should be able to identify the most common emergency situations discuss the elements of a company’s emergency plans. your company must have an emergency action plan and should have BOP drills and fire drills.

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Module 8



  • After this module you should be able to

    • identify the most common emergency situations

    • discuss the elements of a company’s emergency plans


your company must have an emergency action plan and should have BOP drills and fire drills

the emergency action plan must be available for workers to review

Emergency action plan elements

Emergency Action Plan Elements

  • Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency

  • Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route assignments

  • Procedures to be followed by workers who remain to operate critical rig operations before they evacuate

Emergency action plan elements1

Emergency Action Plan Elements

  • Procedures to account for all workers after evacuation

  • Procedures to be followed by workers performing rescue or medical duties

  • The name or job title of every employee who may be contacted by workers who need more information about the plan or an explanation of their duties under the plan



  • 911 will be used on all sites unless the service does not exist in that area

  • Your company will determine availability

  • Satellite phones or 2-way radios may be used when cell phone reception cannot be achieved


Geronimo line

Geronimo Line

  • Setting up the geronimo line

    • periodically checked, adjusted if necessary

    • 6-12 feet of sag in the middle

    • anchor point on ground should be at least 2 times the distance from the derrick as its starting point is high

    • anchor point should be able withstand a 3000 pound force

  • You should be trained on its use

  • Never ride unless in an emergency


this geronimo line has been tied off to the ladder, an insufficient anchor point

Corrective Action: contact your supervisor and arrange for the anchor point to be moved to the derrick

Medical emergencies

Medical Emergencies

  • Oil and gas operations are often in remote areas far from emergency medical care

    • establish a site-wide communication system and a reliable way of contacting EMS on the work site; identify areas of cell phone reception or the phone(s) to be used in the event of an emergency

    • review the emergency plan and procedures for emergency contact with the employees at all work sites

    • discuss what to do if a serious injury occurs

First aid kits

First Aid Kits

  • First aid kits should be

    • kept clean

    • well stocked

    • inspected often

    • available when needed

    • kept in a visible location

    • located throughout the site

    • marked clearly with signage


first aid kits must be checked regularly and restocked when necessary

Eye wash stations and showers

Eye Wash Stations and Showers

  • Many corrosive materials are used in the oil and gas industry

  • The eyes and body may be harmfully exposed to these materials

  • Suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided on the site for emergency use


this is an example of an emergency shower


this is an example of an emergency eye wash station


eye wash stations should be located throughout the site


this first aid station is blocked

Corrective Action: the space in front of emergency equipment should remain accessible at all times


this fire extinguisher is visible, free of obstructions, and ready for use



Fire protection elements

Portable fire extinguishers

Fire and employee alarm systems

Controlling sources of ignition

Storage of flammable materials

Disposal of flammable materials

Fire Protection Elements

Preventing fires

Never store flammables in open or unapproved containers

Store flammables in a special storage cabinet that is well marked with warning signs for everyone to see

Control all ignition sources around flammable liquids

Smoke in designated areas only

Preventing Fires

Keep away sources of ignition

Open flames


Cutting or welding

Static electricity

Hot surfaces

Electrical and mechanical sparks

Sparking tools or devices


Keep Away Sources of Ignition

Disposing of oil soaked rags

Dispose of oil-soaked rags in a metal container with a tight-fitting lid

keeps oxygen away and reduces chance of fire

when exposed to air, some rags can produce enough heat to spontaneously ignite

Mark these special containers as “Oil-Soaked Rags ONLY”

Disposing of Oil-Soaked Rags

Extinguisher maintenance

Must maintain in a fully charged and operable condition

Must keep in their designated places at all times except during use

Visually inspect portable extinguishers and hoses monthly

Must conduct an annual maintenance check

Extinguisher Maintenance

Employee training

Employee Training

  • Your company must familiarize workers with the general principles of fire extinguisher use

  • This training must be given at the beginning of employment and annually thereafter







Extinguisher classification

Class A

ordinary combustibles (wood, cloth, paper)

Class B

flammable liquids, gases, greases

Class C

energized electrical equipment

Class D

combustible metals

Class K

kitchen grease

Extinguisher Classification

Pressure release

Pressure Release

  • A pressure release occurs when a high-pressure line or hose fails at either one of the connection points or at some point along its length

  • This can cause injury to a worker in several ways including

    • the actual fluid or gas in the line or hose

    • the line or hose whipping uncontrollably


existing wellheads on site should be barricaded and caged


hoses can become damaged with nicks, cuts, or gouges and could burst

inspect cables and hoses frequently for damage


high-pressure lines can disconnect from their fittings and whip around uncontrolled

properly install whip checks on all high-pressure lines; ensure that fitting connections are secure


a coupling connection for a flow line during the air drilling phase

use a chain with a ratcheting system to keep connection tight and to keep lines from whipping in case of a failure/disconnect


depending on the pressure involved, this line could kick up and strike you

use some type of device to secure the line to the ground or to keep workers out of the area


a worker working around this line could get struck by it when it kicks

Corrective Action: ensure that lines are properly secured to prevent line from kicking up or barricade area around line to prevent entry

Applicable standards

Applicable Standards

  • 1910.38 Emergency Action Plans

  • 1910 Subpart L Fire Protection

  • 1926.35 Employee Emergency Action Plans

  • 1926 Subpart F Fire Protection and Prevention

Your employer is responsible for

Your Employer Is Responsible For

  • Informing workers of the fire and pressure release hazards to which they are exposed

  • Preparing, implementing, and training on emergency action plans for all types of foreseeable emergencies

  • Responding to and correcting hazards pointed out by you, the worker

You are responsible for

You Are Responsible For

  • Being familiar with and following your company’s emergency action plan

  • Knowing what to do in the event of a medical emergency

  • Doing your part to prevent fires and pressure release

  • Correcting the hazards you are able to correct

  • Reporting to your supervisor the hazards you are unable to correct

Case study

Case Study

  • A rig hand discovered a co-worker lying motionless. He responded by checking for vital signs and found none. He went to the nearest first aid kit to obtain a clear mouth barrier to begin CPR. The barrier was missing. The county coroner stated that the additional time needed to find a barrier may contributed to loss of life.

Always remember

Always Remember

  • Review the emergency action plans and the fire prevention plans

  • You can prevent fires and pressure releases by taking appropriate actions

  • Before beginning a job in a new area, locate the nearest

    • fire extinguisher

    • eyewash station

    • emergency shower

    • emergency exit route

Memory check

Memory Check

  • How much should a properly tensioned geronimo escape line sag in the middle?

    • 1-2 feet

    • 3-5 feet

    • 6-12 feet

    • it should not sag at all

Memory check1

Memory Check

  • First aid kits should be

    • located in a visible location

    • fully stocked

    • available for use

    • all of the above

Memory check2

Memory Check

  • According to OSHA, how often must portable fire extinguishers be visually inspected?

    • daily

    • weekly

    • monthly

    • annually

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