Wave Interactions

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Wave Interactions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 12 Section 4. Wave Interactions. Wave Interference. It’s impossible for two material objects to occupy the same space at the same time . Waves on the other hand are able to occupy the same space at the same time. Superposition.

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Presentation Transcript
Chapter 12 Section 4

Wave Interactions

Wave Interference
• It’s impossible for two material objects to occupy the same space at the same time.
• Waves on the other hand are able to occupy the same space at the same time.
Superposition
• Superposition – The ability for a wave to occupy the same space at the same time.
• Superposition is possible for all forms of waves:
• Sound
• Water
• Light
Constructive Interference
• Constructive Interference – Interference in which individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to form a resultant wave.
• When the two waves meet, they form a larger amplitude wave. Once they pass through one another, they return to their original amplitude.
Destructive Interference
• Destructive Interference – Interference in which individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to form a resultant wave.
• When the two waves meet, they form a smaller amplitude wave or even cancel out. Once they pass through one another, they return to their original amplitude.
Constructive vs. Destructive Interference
• Superposition of Waves Animation
• http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/superposition/superposition.html
Interferences In Waves
• The method of summing the displacements of waves is known as the Superposition Principle.
• This principle only holds true for small waves
• Superposition principle is valid for both transverse and longitudinal waves.
Wave Reflection
• At a free boundary, waves are reflected back to the source and the amplitude is unchanged.
• At a fixed boundary, waves are reflected and inverted back to the source with the amplitude unchanged but upside down.
Standing Waves
• Standing Wave – Wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere.
• Node – Point in a standing wave that always undergoes complete destructive interference and therefore is stationary.
• Antinode – Point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest amplitude occurs.
Standing Waves Explained
• Standing Waves are formed when both ends of a string, rope or spring, are fixed at both ends and the waves reflect on both ends.
• The incident and reflected waves combine according to superposition principle.
• As long as the frequency of the waves remains constant a standing wave will form.
Doppler Effect?
• Your standing on a street and some driving by honks the horn, you will notice the pitch of the horn change.
• The pitch gets higher as the car comes closer.
• Once the car passes, the pitch will drop.
• The pitch depends on the frequency of the wave.
Doppler Effect Animation
• http://www.astro.ubc.ca/~scharein/a311/Sim.html#Doppler
Doppler Effect of Light
• Doppler effect can happen for light waves as well.
Doppler Effect
• Doppler Effect – Frequency shift that is the result of relative motion between the course and an observer.
• When an object moves, it effects the frequency of the wave that is being emitted.
• Doppler effect occurs for all types of waves.