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Chapter 12 Section 4. Wave Interactions. Wave Interference. It’s impossible for two material objects to occupy the same space at the same time . Waves on the other hand are able to occupy the same space at the same time. Superposition.

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Chapter 12 section 4

Chapter 12 Section 4

Wave Interactions


Wave interference
Wave Interference

  • It’s impossible for two material objects to occupy the same space at the same time.

  • Waves on the other hand are able to occupy the same space at the same time.


Superposition
Superposition

  • Superposition – The ability for a wave to occupy the same space at the same time.

  • Superposition is possible for all forms of waves:

    • Sound

    • Water

    • Light


Constructive interference
Constructive Interference

  • Constructive Interference – Interference in which individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to form a resultant wave.

  • When the two waves meet, they form a larger amplitude wave. Once they pass through one another, they return to their original amplitude.



Destructive interference
Destructive Interference

  • Destructive Interference – Interference in which individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to form a resultant wave.

  • When the two waves meet, they form a smaller amplitude wave or even cancel out. Once they pass through one another, they return to their original amplitude.



Constructive vs destructive interference
Constructive vs. Destructive Interference

  • Superposition of Waves Animation

    • http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/superposition/superposition.html


Interferences i n waves
Interferences In Waves

  • The method of summing the displacements of waves is known as the Superposition Principle.

  • This principle only holds true for small waves

  • Superposition principle is valid for both transverse and longitudinal waves.


Wave reflection
Wave Reflection

  • At a free boundary, waves are reflected back to the source and the amplitude is unchanged.

  • At a fixed boundary, waves are reflected and inverted back to the source with the amplitude unchanged but upside down.



Standing waves
Standing Waves

  • Standing Wave – Wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere.

  • Node – Point in a standing wave that always undergoes complete destructive interference and therefore is stationary.

  • Antinode – Point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest amplitude occurs.


Standing w aves explained
Standing Waves Explained

  • Standing Waves are formed when both ends of a string, rope or spring, are fixed at both ends and the waves reflect on both ends.

  • The incident and reflected waves combine according to superposition principle.

  • As long as the frequency of the waves remains constant a standing wave will form.



Doppler effect
Doppler Effect?

  • Your standing on a street and some driving by honks the horn, you will notice the pitch of the horn change.

  • The pitch gets higher as the car comes closer.

  • Once the car passes, the pitch will drop.

  • The pitch depends on the frequency of the wave.



Doppler effect animation
Doppler Effect Animation

  • http://www.astro.ubc.ca/~scharein/a311/Sim.html#Doppler


Doppler effect of light
Doppler Effect of Light

  • Doppler effect can happen for light waves as well.


Doppler effect1
Doppler Effect

  • Doppler Effect – Frequency shift that is the result of relative motion between the course and an observer.

  • When an object moves, it effects the frequency of the wave that is being emitted.

  • Doppler effect occurs for all types of waves.


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