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Sound and Wave Interactions. Sound “If a tree falls in a forest …?”. What is sound? Longitudinal wave, particles transfer energy Mechanical wave, must have a medium Bell in a vacuum. Direction of wave travel. Sound and Amplitude. Amplitude: effects the loudness (volume) of sound

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sound if a tree falls in a forest
Sound“If a tree falls in a forest …?”
  • What is sound?
    • Longitudinal wave, particles transfer energy
    • Mechanical wave, must have a medium
      • Bell in a vacuum
sound and amplitude

Direction of wave travel

Sound and Amplitude
  • Amplitude: effects the loudness (volume) of sound
    • Decibel (db) measures volume
sound and frequency
Sound and frequency
  • Frequency: determines “pitch” you hear
    • How “high” or “low” the sound seems
    • Gizmo on frequency
    • Ultrasound: above human hearing
      • Dog whistles
    • Infrasound: below human hearing
      • whales
sound and frequency1
Sound and Frequency
    • Resonance: natural frequency of an object causes it to vibrate
      • Glass of water
      • Speaker/strobe
      • Bridge Collapse
    • Doppler Effect: sound waves change pitch as they move
      • Sound waves pushed together in front of moving object (higher frequency)
    • sound of Doppler
      • Doppler Radar
  • Wave interactions video
speed of sound
Speed of Sound
  • The speed of sound depends on 3 things
    • Elasticity: ability for medium to “bounce back”
      • More elastic means faster sounds
        • Solids are most elastic, liquids less, and gases not very elastic at all
    • Density: how many particles are in a given space
      • [HOWEVER, more density means slower sounds within the same phase of matter (more dense solids will be slower than less dense solids, etc.)]
    • Temperature: higher kinetic energy (higher temps) = faster sound travel.
    • Speed of Sound video
what happens when waves meet
Reflections

The bouncing back of wave as it hits another object

Law of reflection: “angle in = angle out”

Echoes

Echolocation

Sonar DVD

What happens when waves meet?
slide8
Diffraction
    • Waves bend and spread out around an object
      • Example: sound carries around a corner or over a hill (see diagram) from where it was made
interference
Interference
  • When two waves meet:
    • Constructive interference: a bigger wave is produced as the crests meet
    • Destructive interference: waves of equal amplitude meet with the crest of one and the trough of the other to cancel each other out
      • Active art on interference
  • Gizmo on Sound Interference
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