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What do you recall?. Earth & Space. 3 - What is the role of gravity in the formation of our solar system? What factors affect the force of gravity? How does gravity affect mass and weight?. Station 3 Answers. Station 3 Answers. 1) B, weigh less on Mars (less massive)

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What do you recall?

Earth & Space

3 - What is the role of gravity in the formation of our solar


What factors affect the

force of gravity?

How does gravity affect

mass and weight?

Station 3 Answers

Station 3 Answers

1) B, weigh less on Mars (less massive)

2) C, more craters on mercury (no weathering, no tectonics)

3) A, Keplers law orbit faster as they approach sun (gravity)

4) A, inner planets fewer moons due to sun gravity

Think about this: role of gravity

6 What factors have caused Earth to evolve over geological time?

Station 6 Answers

1) TFB crust neither created nor destroyed

2) CB crust destroyed

3) DBcrust formed

4) DBseafloor spreading,ridges, rifts, volcanoes

5) TFB shift positions earthquakes no volcanoes

6) CB subduction, trenches,

7) B ring of fire convergent boundaries

8) B deep earthquakes (focus) associated to trenches

9) A alternate polarity (magnetic striping) evidence seafloor spreading

10) D radiometric dating provides a numerical age of rocks

Station 6 Answers

Evidence for Wegener’s continental drift theory: shape, fossils, geologic formations, climate (glaciers)

Other disciplines helped modify Wegener’s theory to for the tectonic plate theory: paleontology (fossils), cartography (maps), climatology, geology

8 What characteristics are used to classify stars?

Station 8 Answers

1) C, distance effects apparent magnitude

2) B, bigger more gravity, more gravity hotter

3) D, sunspots show rotation

4) A, light, solar flares, prominences erupt from surface

Station 8 Answers

12 Describe what happens to radiant energy once it enters the Earth's atmosphere.

  • UV absorbed by ozone

  • Some reflected/absorbedby clouds

  • Warms Earth unevenly, tilt,clouds, surface type

  • Earth warms air above

  • Warmer air rises --low pressure, "stormy" weather

  • Cooler air sinks -- high pressure, good weather

  • Different pressures cause wind

  • Close to water moderates temp

Station 12 Answers

1) A, different substances heat/cool at different rates

2) A, water moderates temperatures

3) C, radiation from sun heats earth

4) B/C, earth heat air, conduction, convection, radiation

5) B, hot air (less dense) rises -- low pressure

6) A, pressure differences cause wind (air from high to low)

7) radiation12) adiabatic cooling (complex)

8) convection13) evaporation, downdrafts

9) conduction (complex)

10) conduction

11) radiation

13 What is the energy source that drives plate tectonics? Describe how this energy moves the plates

Heat from core due to pressure,heat leftover from formation, &radioactive decay, unevenly heats mantle above causingconvection currents. Frictionmoves plates above

Earth layered by density.

Station 13 Answers

1) Top (cap) represents crust

2) Middle (wax/water) represents mantle

3) Base (light) represents core

4) A, heat’s in core

5) B, heat from mantle to crust by conduction

6) A, convection in mantle/atmosphere similar -- density

7) C, divergent -- ocean rift, seafloor spreading

8) B, convergent ocean/ocean -- volcanic islands

9) A, convergent continental/continental -- mountains

10) D, transform -- earthquakes

22 Interaction of Earth’s Spheres

Station 22 Answers

1) A, black hotter -- absorbs more energy

2) D, ice like shiny can -- reflects more energy

3) A, Earth absorbs Sun’s radiant energy

4) C, UV rays absorbed by ozone in stratosphere

5) B, clouds reflect radiation

6) C, gulf stream moderates coastal climate (bad question)

7) A, east coasts warm current, west coast cooler currents

8) C, bad question, not a high likelihood on a hurricane on any specific day

23 What causes change of seasons, moon phases and tides?

Station 23 Answers

1) B, rotation night/day not seasons

2) D, winter solstice December

3) D, waxing gibbous

4) H, waning crescent

5) lunar eclipse, Earth’s shadow on moon

6) 1st, 3rd quarter -- neap tides (right angles)

7) full/new -- spring tides (aligned)

26 How are objects in outer space organized?

Station 26 Answers

universe, galaxy, nebula, solar system, stars, planets, moons, comets

1) C, billions and billions galaxies

2) C, billions and billions stars

3) A, miles short distances < 1 AU

4) C, big jump in distance between inner/outer planets

5) B, nebula several LY across

6) B, Milky Way 100,000 LY across

7) C, Andromeda 2.5 MLY away

8) D, space is empty

28 Describe how rocks change over time (rock cycle)

Any type of rock

can become any

other type of rock

Station 28 Answers

1) A, more surface area weather faster

2) D, physical weathering (wind, water, plants) all

3) D, sinkholes/caverns* chemical weathering limestone

4) B, limestone to marble, sedimentary to metamorphic

5) bare, more erosion (movement of sand)

6) wind, source of erosion

7) A, sand from weathering and erosion

8) D, reduce erosion -- protect soil, habitats, buildings

9) C, volcanoes -- source of igneous rock, cooling magma

10 D, convergent mountains source of metamorphic rock

* result in Floridan aquifer

What Do You Recall?

Physical Science

Station 1 --Investigating Forces

Do you know your forces? ANSWERS

1--D- Magnetism: The iron filings move around in the containers (with the magnet) due to magnetic force. This is a NON contact force, meaning magnetism is a force that can act at a distance.

2--A-Friction (or really, drag). The filings move slower through the water due to friction (drag), but are still attracted to the magnet.

3--C-Electric Force (static electricity). When the balloons are charged (electrons are stolen!), they are unbalanced, so they seek protons and are attracted to other objects.

4--A-Friction is the only contact force between friction, gravity, electric, and magnetic.

5--A-The magnetic force was greater than gravity because the filings stopped traveling downward with gravity and were attracted by the magnet.

1- What forces are involved in making a hot air balloon move?

2 - What happens when the forces acting on the balloon are balanced?

What happens when they are unbalanced?

Station 2--Observing Motion

Forces with causes:

Lift = (D) Hot air balloon;

Weight = (C) Gravity (F= MxA);

Thrust = (B) Push with finger, though this is a stretch… thrust would be rocket fuel boosters or engine propelling you forward, or air moving out of a balloon, propelling you forward (Newton’s 3rd law). Push with finger is more APPLIED;

Drag = (A) Friction

1--When the glider is hovering (but not moving), what forces are balanced? C-Thrust and Drag AND Lift and Weight. No movement = Balanced. Constant motion is also balanced--INERTIA!!! 1st Law!!! An object in motion stays in motion, an object at rest stays at rest (at same speed in same direction (velocity) unless acted upon by an unbalanced force!

2--What must happen to begin movement? ...needs thrust to initiate (and counter drag). **

3--Now that it’s moving, what will happen when all the forces are balanced? A--It will continue doing what it was...Inertia.

4--When 2 gliders collide-- B-Net force is determined by subtracting.

4 N 2 N Net force = 2 N

Describe the glider’s speed over time (note the axis labels!!!).

* Speed is constant until 4 seconds--slope the same. Then the glider slows (flatter slope), then it stops. No change in distance over time.

Station 7 Matter Matters

1--Protons are the identity! 9 protons = F

2--Add a proton? Protons are the identity! = Ne

3--Neutrons do not affect the element! Varying numbers of neutrons mean the atoms are ISOTOPES. = Still Ne

4--Electrons are EXTREMELY small.

5--Families (columns) on the periodic table share similar properties!

7--Matter Matters --Solid, liquids, gases

6--A was the


7--B Molecules

of a solid are

NOT motionless.

There is a bit of


8--Liquid to gas is vaporization (evaporation). Condensation is gas to liquid, deposition is gas to solid, and sublimation is solid to gas.

7- Matter Matters pH

7 What are some similarities and differences between elements, compounds and mixtures?

Pure Pure Mixture (separate Pure

by physical means)

10 --The solar powered race car

*Nicholas, where is my car?? ;)

How should a scientist confirm that an experiment has good (valid and reliable) data?

1. Malik and Anthony were testing TWO variables….they had TWO test variables in ONE experiment. --Width and size (C). This INDEPENDENT (TEST) Variable was the variable that the experimenters changed ON PURPOSE, BUT changing TWO variables makes this experiment NOT valid in the first place.

2. The intended DEPENDANT Variable was the speed of the car (D), as it relied on the tire size (and width unfortunately).

3. The constant was the SAME material for the tires attached the same way. Constants are used to be sure that there are no other variables that could affect the results of the experiment.

4 --The force that slowed the motion was friction (c).

10--Solar powered car

5--Force created by the solar cell was thrust….the POWER behind the movement.

6--Multiple trials done by the same people is repetition (A).

7--The data shows that the thin big wheels are best (D)--ick. I don’t like this experiment!!

8--The boys who did the experiment and repeated it several times gave it to their friends to do. Their results were similar. This says that the experiment can be REPLICATED (B)! Others do it and get similar results.

**They could improve their experiment by isolating a test variable!

11 What are 3 ways that heat can move from one substance to another?

  • radiation - INITIAL transfer of heat to anything! through anything (vacuum)

  • conduction - transferring heat through solids

  • convection - transferring heat through fluids

  • from areas of higher temp toareas of lower temp.

    (Heat moves cold does not).

  • no such thing as cold onlyvarious amounts of heat

11--Heat Flows toward cooler objects.

1--Metal rod heated fastest --conductor!!!

2--Metal rod also cooled the fastest! Conductor (it lost its heat as the heat moves quickly in and out of conductors).

3--Yes! The ice GAINED the heat, hence it melted. Heat moved into the ice, not the cold moving out of the ice. Heat moves! Cold doesn’t!

4--Transfer of heat through rods (conduction)--solids.

5--Steam moving upward (air circulating) --Convection--gases.


Radiation is the initial heat transfer. What they are getting at here is if you held your hand near the plate that was initially transferring the heat, that radiation would warm your hand. If you touched someone’s arm after that, conduction would transfer that heat.

Convection and conduction are secondary transfers of energy….Radiation is the initial transfer. ie., sun warms the swing at the park (radiation). You sit on it...conduction! Ouch!


7 When adding ice, the boiling water transfers its heat to the ice, so the overall temperature drops.

Changes in State--

14 List several physical properties of matter.

  • density *

  • conductivity *

  • pH

  • color

  • boiling point *

  • melting point *

  • mass

    Which can identify apure substance? *Characteristic Properties!

14 Physical Properties of Matter

Calculate Density!

20 g/mL = 4 g / x mL? This seemed to stump people. If you are ever not sure how to set up an equation, put in numbers that you can easily solve for and think about how you would solve!



Solvent = means the substance doing the dissolving (the water in salt water).

Solute = the substance being dissolved (salt in salt water).

Saturated means dissolved until no more can dissolve so there is extra! Think Kool-aid sludge at the bottom.

15 What are some similarities and differences in light and sound waves?

Both are forms of energy that move as waves

(characteristics: wavelength, frequency, amplitude)

Sound requires matter to compress

Light is slowed (impeded) by matter

18 Describe how energy is converted from one type to another in the production of electricity.

Stored potential energy(coal, water, oil) converted to mechanical kinetic energy (spinning turbine)converted to electrical

potential energy

21 Diagram the electromagnetic spectrum, label low/high frequencies and long/short wavelengths.

27 Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes.

What Do You Recall?

Life Science

4 - How are physical traits inherited from one generation to the next?

5 - What factors affect the survival and change (evolution) of a species over time?

9 What characteristics are used to classify organisms?

16 List and describe the functions of as many cell organelles as you can.

  • wall

  • membrane

  • nucleus

  • vacuole

  • mitochondria

  • chloroplast

  • cytoplasm

17 What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis? How do they relate to reproduction?

mitosis - asexual, identical,


meiosis - sexual, producegametes (sex cells) half the chromosomes, variation

19 How is carbon removed from the atmosphere? How is it added? How is energy transformed during the carbon cycle?

Sun's energy stored inchemical bonds of plants, fossil fuels.

Released as heat, lightwhen burned

20 Test & Outcome

What is the difference between test and outcome variables?

How are control groups different from experimental groups?

24 Organisms interact with each other in a variety of ways in an ecosystem. Describe as many of these interactions as you can.

25 All things are made of atoms

29 Give several examples of how organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis in the human body.

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