What do you recall?. Earth & Space. 3 - What is the role of gravity in the formation of our solar system? What factors affect the force of gravity? How does gravity affect mass and weight?. Station 3 Answers. Station 3 Answers. 1) B, weigh less on Mars (less massive)
Earth & Space
What factors affect the
force of gravity?
How does gravity affect
mass and weight?
1) B, weigh less on Mars (less massive)
2) C, more craters on mercury (no weathering, no tectonics)
3) A, Keplers law orbit faster as they approach sun (gravity)
4) A, inner planets fewer moons due to sun gravity
Think about this: role of gravity
1) TFB crust neither created nor destroyed
2) CB crust destroyed
3) DB crust formed
4) DB seafloor spreading,ridges, rifts, volcanoes
5) TFB shift positions earthquakes no volcanoes
6) CB subduction, trenches,
7) B ring of fire convergent boundaries
8) B deep earthquakes (focus) associated to trenches
9) A alternate polarity (magnetic striping) evidence seafloor spreading
10) D radiometric dating provides a numerical age of rocks
Evidence for Wegener’s continental drift theory: shape, fossils, geologic formations, climate (glaciers)
Other disciplines helped modify Wegener’s theory to for the tectonic plate theory: paleontology (fossils), cartography (maps), climatology, geology
1) C, distance effects apparent magnitude
2) B, bigger more gravity, more gravity hotter
3) D, sunspots show rotation
4) A, light, solar flares, prominences erupt from surface
1) A, different substances heat/cool at different rates
2) A, water moderates temperatures
3) C, radiation from sun heats earth
4) B/C, earth heat air, conduction, convection, radiation
5) B, hot air (less dense) rises -- low pressure
6) A, pressure differences cause wind (air from high to low)
7) radiation 12) adiabatic cooling (complex)
8) convection 13) evaporation, downdrafts
9) conduction (complex)
Heat from core due to pressure,heat leftover from formation, &radioactive decay, unevenly heats mantle above causingconvection currents. Frictionmoves plates above
Earth layered by density.
1) Top (cap) represents crust
2) Middle (wax/water) represents mantle
3) Base (light) represents core
4) A, heat’s in core
5) B, heat from mantle to crust by conduction
6) A, convection in mantle/atmosphere similar -- density
7) C, divergent -- ocean rift, seafloor spreading
8) B, convergent ocean/ocean -- volcanic islands
9) A, convergent continental/continental -- mountains
10) D, transform -- earthquakes
1) A, black hotter -- absorbs more energy
2) D, ice like shiny can -- reflects more energy
3) A, Earth absorbs Sun’s radiant energy
4) C, UV rays absorbed by ozone in stratosphere
5) B, clouds reflect radiation
6) C, gulf stream moderates coastal climate (bad question)
7) A, east coasts warm current, west coast cooler currents
8) C, bad question, not a high likelihood on a hurricane on any specific day
1) B, rotation night/day not seasons
2) D, winter solstice December
3) D, waxing gibbous
4) H, waning crescent
5) lunar eclipse, Earth’s shadow on moon
6) 1st, 3rd quarter -- neap tides (right angles)
7) full/new -- spring tides (aligned)
universe, galaxy, nebula, solar system, stars, planets, moons, comets
1) C, billions and billions galaxies
2) C, billions and billions stars
3) A, miles short distances < 1 AU
4) C, big jump in distance between inner/outer planets
5) B, nebula several LY across
6) B, Milky Way 100,000 LY across
7) C, Andromeda 2.5 MLY away
8) D, space is empty
Any type of rock
can become any
other type of rock
1) A, more surface area weather faster
2) D, physical weathering (wind, water, plants) all
3) D, sinkholes/caverns* chemical weathering limestone
4) B, limestone to marble, sedimentary to metamorphic
5) bare, more erosion (movement of sand)
6) wind, source of erosion
7) A, sand from weathering and erosion
8) D, reduce erosion -- protect soil, habitats, buildings
9) C, volcanoes -- source of igneous rock, cooling magma
10 D, convergent mountains source of metamorphic rock
* result in Floridan aquifer
Do you know your forces? ANSWERS
1--D- Magnetism: The iron filings move around in the containers (with the magnet) due to magnetic force. This is a NON contact force, meaning magnetism is a force that can act at a distance.
2--A-Friction (or really, drag). The filings move slower through the water due to friction (drag), but are still attracted to the magnet.
3--C-Electric Force (static electricity). When the balloons are charged (electrons are stolen!), they are unbalanced, so they seek protons and are attracted to other objects.
4--A-Friction is the only contact force between friction, gravity, electric, and magnetic.
5--A-The magnetic force was greater than gravity because the filings stopped traveling downward with gravity and were attracted by the magnet.
Forces with causes:
Lift = (D) Hot air balloon;
Weight = (C) Gravity (F= MxA);
Thrust = (B) Push with finger, though this is a stretch… thrust would be rocket fuel boosters or engine propelling you forward, or air moving out of a balloon, propelling you forward (Newton’s 3rd law). Push with finger is more APPLIED;
Drag = (A) Friction
1--When the glider is hovering (but not moving), what forces are balanced? C-Thrust and Drag AND Lift and Weight. No movement = Balanced. Constant motion is also balanced--INERTIA!!! 1st Law!!! An object in motion stays in motion, an object at rest stays at rest (at same speed in same direction (velocity) unless acted upon by an unbalanced force!
2--What must happen to begin movement? ...needs thrust to initiate (and counter drag). **
3--Now that it’s moving, what will happen when all the forces are balanced? A--It will continue doing what it was...Inertia.
4--When 2 gliders collide-- B-Net force is determined by subtracting.
4 N 2 N Net force = 2 N
* Speed is constant until 4 seconds--slope the same. Then the glider slows (flatter slope), then it stops. No change in distance over time.
1--Protons are the identity! 9 protons = F
2--Add a proton? Protons are the identity! = Ne
3--Neutrons do not affect the element! Varying numbers of neutrons mean the atoms are ISOTOPES. = Still Ne
4--Electrons are EXTREMELY small.
5--Families (columns) on the periodic table share similar properties!
6--A was the
of a solid are
There is a bit of
8--Liquid to gas is vaporization (evaporation). Condensation is gas to liquid, deposition is gas to solid, and sublimation is solid to gas.
Pure Pure Mixture (separate Pure
by physical means)
10 --The solar powered race car elements, compounds and mixtures?
*Nicholas, where is my car?? ;)
How should a scientist confirm that an experiment has good (valid and reliable) data?
1. Malik and Anthony were testing TWO variables….they had TWO test variables in ONE experiment. --Width and size (C). This INDEPENDENT (TEST) Variable was the variable that the experimenters changed ON PURPOSE, BUT changing TWO variables makes this experiment NOT valid in the first place.
2. The intended DEPENDANT Variable was the speed of the car (D), as it relied on the tire size (and width unfortunately).
3. The constant was the SAME material for the tires attached the same way. Constants are used to be sure that there are no other variables that could affect the results of the experiment.
4 --The force that slowed the motion was friction (c).
5--Force created by the solar cell was thrust….the POWER behind the movement.
6--Multiple trials done by the same people is repetition (A).
7--The data shows that the thin big wheels are best (D)--ick. I don’t like this experiment!!
8--The boys who did the experiment and repeated it several times gave it to their friends to do. Their results were similar. This says that the experiment can be REPLICATED (B)! Others do it and get similar results.
**They could improve their experiment by isolating a test variable!
(Heat moves cold does not).
1--Metal rod heated fastest --conductor!!!
2--Metal rod also cooled the fastest! Conductor (it lost its heat as the heat moves quickly in and out of conductors).
3--Yes! The ice GAINED the heat, hence it melted. Heat moved into the ice, not the cold moving out of the ice. Heat moves! Cold doesn’t!
4--Transfer of heat through rods (conduction)--solids.
5--Steam moving upward (air circulating) --Convection--gases.
Radiation is the initial heat transfer. What they are getting at here is if you held your hand near the plate that was initially transferring the heat, that radiation would warm your hand. If you touched someone’s arm after that, conduction would transfer that heat.
Convection and conduction are secondary transfers of energy….Radiation is the initial transfer. ie., sun warms the swing at the park (radiation). You sit on it...conduction! Ouch!
7 When adding ice, the boiling water transfers its heat to the ice, so the overall temperature drops.
Changes in State--
Which can identify apure substance? *Characteristic Properties!
20 g/mL = 4 g / x mL? This seemed to stump people. If you are ever not sure how to set up an equation, put in numbers that you can easily solve for and think about how you would solve!
Solvent = means the substance doing the dissolving (the water in salt water).
Solute = the substance being dissolved (salt in salt water).
Saturated means dissolved until no more can dissolve so there is extra! Think Kool-aid sludge at the bottom.
Both are forms of energy that move as waves
(characteristics: wavelength, frequency, amplitude)
Sound requires matter to compress
Light is slowed (impeded) by matter
Stored potential energy(coal, water, oil) converted to mechanical kinetic energy (spinning turbine)converted to electrical
mitosis - asexual, identical,
meiosis - sexual, producegametes (sex cells) half the chromosomes, variation
Sun's energy stored inchemical bonds of plants, fossil fuels.
Released as heat, lightwhen burned
What is the difference between test and outcome variables?
How are control groups different from experimental groups?