Overview of this unit
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Overview of This Unit. Verbal Strategies of Supportiveness and Defensiveness Why Argue About Pointless Matters ? Why do we Misunderstand?. Evaluation Control Strategy Neutrality Certain Superiority. Description Problem Solving Spontaneity Empathy Provisional Equality.

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Overview of this unit

Overview of This Unit

  • Verbal Strategies of Supportiveness and Defensiveness

  • Why Argue About Pointless Matters?

  • Why do we Misunderstand?


Defensiveness and supportiveness

Evaluation

Control

Strategy

Neutrality

Certain

Superiority

Description

Problem Solving

Spontaneity

Empathy

Provisional

Equality

Defensiveness and Supportiveness


Overview of this unit1

Overview of This Unit

  • Verbal Strategies of Supportiveness and Defensiveness

  • Why Argue About Pointless Matters?

  • Why do we Misunderstand?


Factual v verbal disputes

Factual v. Verbal Disputes

  • Factual disputes involve propositions about facts and are settled only by getting more factual information

  • example:

    Dave: Lincoln was born in Indiana. I learned that in the third grade.

    Carl: No, he wasn’t. He was born in Kentucky. I says so in my college textbook.


Factual dispute examples

Factual Dispute Examples

  • that two Soviet cosmonauts died in outer space in 1965

  • that John F. Kennedy was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald

  • that the plurality of scientists has the aquarian astrological sign


Verbal disputes

Verbal Disputes

  • Verbal disputes involve statements that people think involve controversies over objects named by their words, when they really involve arguments about the words themselves

  • Cannot be resolved by investigating facts


Statements that involve verbal disputes

Statements that Involve Verbal Disputes

  • Analytic statements, tautologies, and definitions: the meanings for words

  • Contradictions, paradoxes, and oxymorons

  • Attitude axioms

  • Metaphysical statements


Analytic statements tautologies and definitions

Analytic Statements, Tautologies, and Definitions

the meanings for words


Analytic statements tautologies and definitions1

Analytic Statements, Tautologies, and Definitions

statements that assert that one term may be

substituted

for another

the meanings for words


Analytic definition and tautology proposition examples

Analytic, Definition, and Tautology Proposition Examples

  • Samuel Clemens is Mark Twain

  • A yard is three feet long

  • The law is the law

  • All bachelors are unmarried


Standard for verbal disputes

Standard for Verbal Disputes

If no sense experience could verify or falsify a statement, then it is simply not about the world we experience with our five senses


Contradictions paradoxes and oxymorons

Contradictions, Paradoxes, and Oxymorons

  • Contradiction: a statement that always must be false

  • Oxymoron: a contradiction in terms

  • Paradox: a statement that declares itself in contradiction


Contradictions and oxymorons

Contradictions and Oxymorons

statements that must be false due to their very construction

a noisy quiet

fresh frozen

jumbo shrimp

anti-abortion protestors

original copy


Paradoxes

Paradoxes

The statement in this square is false


Paradoxes1

Paradoxes

Paradox of the Barber

The statement in this square is false


Attitude axioms

Attitude Axioms

statements that reveal how the speaker feels about things

Example:

The worst day of fishing is better than the best day of work

I love what you do for me--Toyota


Metaphysical statements

Metaphysical Statements

  • Statements about things that cannot be observed in this life

  • Examples:

    There is a God in heaven

    There is life after death

    There are seven astral planes

    The Jones house is haunted


Some examples verbal or factual

Some Examples: Verbal or Factual?

  • Bigfoot exists

  • My Grandmother is in heaven.

  • All humans are born equal.

  • God created Himself.

  • “Nothing ever dies. Science tells us that. Nothing ever dies, it just changes form.” -- Shirley MacLaine

  • Abortion kills babies.

  • A: “The human embryo, even at the age of 14 days, has developed fingers and toes. My philosophy teacher told me that.”B: “That’s not true. At that point the embryo doesn’t even have limbs. You can look that up in any competent biology textbook.”


Overview of this unit2

Overview of This Unit

  • Verbal Strategies of Self Disclosure

  • Overcoming Superstitions About Language

  • Why Argue About Pointless Matters?

  • Why do we Misunderstand?


Why are there misunderstandings

Why Are There Misunderstandings?

We forget that:

1. Language creates a social reality

Whorf-Sapir hypothesis


Overview of this unit

We forget that:

2. Language is, by its very nature, incomplete

the hazy claim

ungrammatical incompleteness

the incomplete comparison

the non exclusive claim

weasel words


Overview of this unit

We forget that:

3. Language reflects culture


Take a break

Take a Break!

We will resume in 10 minutes


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