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Chapter 2. The Human Body in Health and Disease. DEFINITIONS. Anatomy – the study of the structures of the body (ex.- names of bones) Physiology – the study of the functions of these structures (ex.- role of bones in the musculoskeletal system). ANATOMICAL POSITION.

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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

The Human Body in

Health and Disease


Definitions
DEFINITIONS

  • Anatomy – the study of the structures of the body (ex.- names of bones)

  • Physiology – the study of the functions of these structures (ex.- role of bones in the musculoskeletal system)


Anatomical position
ANATOMICAL POSITION

  • ALL descriptions of the body are based on anatomical position. When referring to anatomical position, that means the person is:

  • Standing

  • Facing toward you

  • Arms at their sides

  • Palms toward you


Planes of the body
PLANES OF THE BODY

  • Midsagittal (lateral) – lengthwise plane that divides the body into

  • equal right and left sides

  • Sagittal(lateral) – divides the body into unequal right and left sides


Planes of the body1
PLANES OF THE BODY

  • Frontal (coronal) - plane that divides the body into front

  • and back portions

  • Transverse (horizontal) - plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions


Positional directional terms please turn to page 22 table 2 1
POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMSPlease turn to page 22, Table 2.1

  • Ventral – front or belly side

  • Anterior – situated in front

  • Superior – above, toward the head

  • Cephalic – toward the head

  • Proximal – near the midline or beginning of a structure

  • Medial – toward, near the midline


Positional directional terms
POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMS

  • Dorsal – back of body or organ

  • Posterior – situated in back

  • Inferior – below, toward the feet

  • Caudal – toward lower part of body

  • Lateral – away from the midline

  • Distal – farthest from midline or beginning of a structure


Positional directional terms1
POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMS

Remember: ALL terms are used in relation to what body part they are being compared to

Example: The ankle is

() to the knee?


Body cavities
BODY CAVITIES

  • Spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs

  • Dorsal Cavities (back of the body):

    • Cranial - contains brain, pituitary gland

    • Spinal - nerves, spinal cord


Body cavities1
BODY CAVITIES

Ventral Cavities (front of the body):

Thoracic - contains heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus, aorta

Abdominal - stomach, small & large intestine, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Pelvic - portion of large & small intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters, uterus, vagina


Divisions of the abdomen

LUQ

RUQ

RLQ

LLQ

DIVISIONS OF THE ABDOMEN

RUQ – right upper quadrant

RLQ – right lower quadrant

LUQ – left upper quadrant

LLQ – left lower quadrant

  • Abdomin/o/pelv/ic area is divided into four quadrants

  • Assessment findings, organs, etc… are described by the quadrant they are located in


Organs in the quadrants of the abdominopelvic area
ORGANS IN THE QUADRANTS OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC AREA

  • RUQ - liver, gallbladder,

  • part of pancreas, part of

  • small & large intestine

  • LUQ - liver, stomach,

  • spleen, part of pancreas,

  • part of small & large intestine


Organs in the quadrants of the abdominopelvic area1
ORGANS IN THE QUADRANTS OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC AREA

  • RLQ - part of small and large intestine, right ovary & fallopian

  • tube, right ureter, and

  • appendix

  • LLQ - part of small and

  • large intestine, left ovary & fallopian tube, left ureter


Abdominopelvic regions
ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS

  • Named for the PATIENT’s side of body (i.e. his right or left, NOT yours)

    • Right hypochondriac

    • Epigastric

    • Left hypochondriac

    • Right lumbar

    • Umbilical

    • Left lumbar

    • Right inguinal

    • Hypogastric

    • Left inguinal


Abdominopelvic regions1
ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS

Right Left

Hypochondriac Epigastric Hypochondriac

Right Left

Lumbar Umbilical Lumbar

Right Left

Inguinal Hypogastric Inguinal


Body cavities2
BODY CAVITIES

  • Divisions of Abdominal cavity (p. 24)

  • The peritoneum is a membrane surrounding the organs in the abdominal cavity.

  • The retroperitoneal (retro- = behind) area is behind the peritoneum and contains the kidneys.


Time to practice
Time to Practice!!!

  • You will be divided into groups.

  • In your group, create a fictional medical story using the following guidelines:

    • must use one “plane” of the body

    • must use four position or directional

      terms

    • must contain two ventral cavity organs

    • must contain one quadrant and one

      abdominopelvic region

      Present your story to the class in the form of a skit. You will have 20 minutes to prepare your story & skit. Your story must make sense and contain correct use of the terms.


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