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Chapter 2. The Human Body in Health and Disease. DEFINITIONS. Anatomy – the study of the structures of the body (ex.- names of bones) Physiology – the study of the functions of these structures (ex.- role of bones in the musculoskeletal system). ANATOMICAL POSITION.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

The Human Body in

Health and Disease

definitions
DEFINITIONS
  • Anatomy – the study of the structures of the body (ex.- names of bones)
  • Physiology – the study of the functions of these structures (ex.- role of bones in the musculoskeletal system)
anatomical position
ANATOMICAL POSITION
  • ALL descriptions of the body are based on anatomical position. When referring to anatomical position, that means the person is:
  • Standing
  • Facing toward you
  • Arms at their sides
  • Palms toward you
planes of the body
PLANES OF THE BODY
  • Midsagittal (lateral) – lengthwise plane that divides the body into
  • equal right and left sides
  • Sagittal(lateral) – divides the body into unequal right and left sides
planes of the body1
PLANES OF THE BODY
  • Frontal (coronal) - plane that divides the body into front
  • and back portions
  • Transverse (horizontal) - plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions
positional directional terms please turn to page 22 table 2 1
POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMSPlease turn to page 22, Table 2.1
  • Ventral – front or belly side
  • Anterior – situated in front
  • Superior – above, toward the head
  • Cephalic – toward the head
  • Proximal – near the midline or beginning of a structure
  • Medial – toward, near the midline
positional directional terms
POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMS
  • Dorsal – back of body or organ
  • Posterior – situated in back
  • Inferior – below, toward the feet
  • Caudal – toward lower part of body
  • Lateral – away from the midline
  • Distal – farthest from midline or beginning of a structure
positional directional terms1
POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMS

Remember: ALL terms are used in relation to what body part they are being compared to

Example: The ankle is

() to the knee?

body cavities
BODY CAVITIES
  • Spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs
  • Dorsal Cavities (back of the body):
    • Cranial - contains brain, pituitary gland
    • Spinal - nerves, spinal cord
body cavities1
BODY CAVITIES

Ventral Cavities (front of the body):

Thoracic - contains heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus, aorta

Abdominal - stomach, small & large intestine, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Pelvic - portion of large & small intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters, uterus, vagina

divisions of the abdomen

LUQ

RUQ

RLQ

LLQ

DIVISIONS OF THE ABDOMEN

RUQ – right upper quadrant

RLQ – right lower quadrant

LUQ – left upper quadrant

LLQ – left lower quadrant

  • Abdomin/o/pelv/ic area is divided into four quadrants
  • Assessment findings, organs, etc… are described by the quadrant they are located in
organs in the quadrants of the abdominopelvic area
ORGANS IN THE QUADRANTS OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC AREA
  • RUQ - liver, gallbladder,
  • part of pancreas, part of
  • small & large intestine
  • LUQ - liver, stomach,
  • spleen, part of pancreas,
  • part of small & large intestine
organs in the quadrants of the abdominopelvic area1
ORGANS IN THE QUADRANTS OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC AREA
  • RLQ - part of small and large intestine, right ovary & fallopian
  • tube, right ureter, and
  • appendix
  • LLQ - part of small and
  • large intestine, left ovary & fallopian tube, left ureter
abdominopelvic regions
ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS
  • Named for the PATIENT’s side of body (i.e. his right or left, NOT yours)
          • Right hypochondriac
          • Epigastric
          • Left hypochondriac
          • Right lumbar
          • Umbilical
          • Left lumbar
          • Right inguinal
          • Hypogastric
          • Left inguinal
abdominopelvic regions1
ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS

Right Left

Hypochondriac Epigastric Hypochondriac

Right Left

Lumbar Umbilical Lumbar

Right Left

Inguinal Hypogastric Inguinal

body cavities2
BODY CAVITIES
  • Divisions of Abdominal cavity (p. 24)
  • The peritoneum is a membrane surrounding the organs in the abdominal cavity.
  • The retroperitoneal (retro- = behind) area is behind the peritoneum and contains the kidneys.
time to practice
Time to Practice!!!
  • You will be divided into groups.
  • In your group, create a fictional medical story using the following guidelines:
    • must use one “plane” of the body
    • must use four position or directional

terms

    • must contain two ventral cavity organs
    • must contain one quadrant and one

abdominopelvic region

Present your story to the class in the form of a skit. You will have 20 minutes to prepare your story & skit. Your story must make sense and contain correct use of the terms.

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