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Chapter 2 Planning a Healthy Diet I. Principles and Guidelines A. Diet planning principles (ABCNMV) 1. Adequacy a. Provides sufficient energy and nutrients 2. Balance a. Consume a number of different foods in appropriate proportion to each other

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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2 l.jpg

Chapter 2

Planning a Healthy Diet


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I. Principles and Guidelines

A. Diet planning principles (ABCNMV)

1. Adequacy

a. Provides sufficient energy and nutrients

2. Balance

a. Consume a number of different foods in appropriate proportion to each other


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Diet planning principles (ABCNMV) (cont)

3. kCalorie control

a. Energy balance

4. Nutrient density

a. Large amount of nutrients in a food with a small amount of calories

5. Moderation

a. In consuming foods that are not nutrient dense

6. Variety

a. Consume a variety of foods within and among the food groups


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B. Dietary Guidelines for Americans (table 2-1)

1. ‘What should an individual eat to stay healthy?

incorporate the guidelines from chapter 1 and the principles from chapter 2


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II. Diet-Planning Guidesgroup foods according to nutrient composition and specify amount per serving and number of servings per day

A. Food Group Plans

1. Daily food guides

a. Assigns food to one of five groups

1. Depends on nutrient composition

2. Identifies a serving size within each group

b. Daily Food Guide (figure 2-1)

c. USDA=s Food Guide Pyramid (figure 2-1)


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Daily Food Guides (cont)

2. Notable Nutrients

a. Foods are grouped according to nutrient content

1. milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt grouped together because of calcium content

2. breads or cereals contain the B vitamins

3. Nutrient Density

a. Nutrients/kcal

1. Varies within a food group

a. ice cream = 280 and yogurt = 90 kcal, yet both have ~200 mg Ca


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Daily Food Guides (cont)

4. Recommended Servings

a. Each food group has a recommended number of servings

1. breads and cereals6-11

2. vegetables3-5

3. fruits2-4

4. milk2-3

5. meat2-3


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Recommended Servings (cont)

b. Serving sizes

1. Varies among and within each group

a. Figure 2-1

2. set to provide equivalent nutrient composition

a. 1/4 c of dried fruit, 1/2 c canned fruit 5. Food Guide Pyramid (see next slide)

a. Graphic depiction of the daily food guide

b. Foundation is cereals and grains

6. Vegetarian Food Guide

a. Make appropriate substitutions

1. Legumes for meats


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Food Guide Pyramid


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B. Exchange Lists

1. Originally developed for diabetics

2. Can aid in controlling caloric intake

3. Separates foods based on their content of the energy yielding nutrients, CHO, protein and fat, rather than nutrient composition

4. Aids in controlling blood glucose concentration


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Exchange Lists (cont)

5. Groups

1. CHO

a. fruit, vegetables

b. milk (high and low fat)

c. starches

2. Meat and Meat Substitute

a. meat (high and low fat)

b. eggs, peanuts

3. Fats


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C. From Guidelines to Groceries

1. Bread, cereals and other grain products

a. B vitamins, minerals and fiber

b. Refining of grains results in nutrient loss

1. grains are enriched with niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, folate and iron

2. Select whole grain products

3. The next slide illustrate the difference in nutrient content in unenriched, enriched and unprocessed grain


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Processing, Nutrition & Enrichment


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From guidelines to groceries (cont)

2. Vegetables

a. Vitamins A, C, folate, minerals and fiber

b. Choose fresh dark green and yellow/orange vegetables

3. Fruit

a. Vitamins A, C and fiber

b. Choose fresh yellow/orange and citrus fruits


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From guidelines to groceries (cont)

4. Meat, fish and poultry

a. Protein, B vitamins, minerals such as iron and zinc

b. Choose lean meats, fish and poultry

1. Remove fat and skin

c. Nutrient density

5. Milk

a. Calcium, phosphorous, protein, fortified with vitamins A and D

b. Nutrient density


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III. Food Labels

A. Nutrition and Labeling Act of 1990

1. Required food processors to provide certain information on labels

2. Allows consumers to make informed decisions


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B. Label Content

1. Common or usual name

2. Name and address of manufacturer or processor

3. Net contents in weight, measure or count

4. Ingredients in descending order by weight


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Nutrition Food Label


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Label Content (cont)

5. Serving size and number of servings per container

a. Standardized serving size

b. Nutrient composition based on serving size

6. Nutrition facts

a. kCal, kCal from fat, total fat, saturated fat, protein, CHO, fiber, sodium and sugar

b. Vitamins A and C and minerals iron and calcium


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Nutrition Food Label (cont)


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Label Content (cont)

7. Daily values

a. Reference Daily Intakes (RDI)

1. based on RDA’s

b. Daily Reference Values (DRV) 1. Not based on RDA c. Percent daily values


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Nutrition Food Label (cont)


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C. Descriptive terms

1. Defined by FDA

2. Table 2-11

a. Low-sodium, fat-free

D. Health claims

1. Describe association between nutrient and disease

2. Permitted on packages when scientific evidence supports claim


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Health claims (cont)

a. Examples of health claims

1. Calcium and osteoporosis

2. Sodium and hypertension

3. Saturated fat, cholesterol and heart disease

3. Not permitted on foods that contain more than 20% of the daily value for fat, cholesterol or sodium

4. Food must also supply at least 10% of vitamin A, C, the mineral calcium or iron, or protein or fiber


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