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Biosecurity Basics. John Waddell DVM,MBA. The First Step. Commitment to a common cause our livelihood depends on it it may require a lifestyle change it is not like an insurance policy which is bought and then shelved until needed

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biosecurity basics

Biosecurity Basics

John Waddell DVM,MBA

the first step
The First Step
  • Commitment to a common cause
    • our livelihood depends on it
    • it may require a lifestyle change
    • it is not like an insurance policy which is bought and then shelved until needed
    • it is more like must plant before you can harvest!
    • a crop failure in this case is a success!
bio security
  • Methods for protecting our pigs
  • Includes all the practices, principles, and policies that we enforce to safeguard the life and health of the swine herd, that provides for our livelihood.
biosecurity components
Biosecurity components
  • Increase the animal\'s ability to resist disease;
  • Minimize the number of contacts that might result in disease; and
  • Eliminate sources of the infectious agent.
back to basics
Back to Basics
  • First find out what we got and where
  • Then start pluggin’ holes
    • Largest holes first
      • Live animals
      • Transportation
      • Semen
    • Smaller holes next
      • People
      • Equipment
      • Feed
      • Other vectors (flies, rodents, birds, parcels)

The environment where swine are raised, will vary according to their geographical location and type of facility. Bio-Security measures will vary, and the following recommendations are to be used as guidelines, and can be modified as needed to meet the needs of the individual operation.

diseases which can be prevented or eliminated from swine
  • * Lice and Mange
  • *Swine Dysentery
  • *TGE
  • *Atrophic Rhinitis
  • *Foreign Exotic Diseases
  • *APP
  • *PRV
  • *Brucellosis and Tuberculosis
  • *Mycoplasmosis
  • *PRRS
diseases difficult to control since they are a part of the environment or colonize the very young
Diseases difficult to control since they are a part of the environment or colonize the very young:
  • *Colibacillosis
  • *S. suis and H. parasuis
  • *Internal Parasites
  • *Ileitis
  • *Leptospirosis
  • *Erysipelas
  • *Coccidosis
environmental and management factors that complicate diseases
Environmental and Management FactorsThat Complicate Diseases
  • *Ammonia and other gases
  • *Extreme weather
  • *Dust and dander particles
  • *Vectors
    • rodents, flies, stray animals and wildlife
    • feed, vehicles
    • humans and other pigs
premise considerations
Premise Considerations
  • Location from other swine
    • Distance from the other herd
    • Direction in relation to winds
    • Proximity to major thoroughfares
    • Relation to natural barriers
    • How far is far enough?
    • It depends on the health status of the neighboring herd
type of facility
Type of Facility
  • Single vs. multi-site
  • All in / all out
    • age segregated
    • unidirectional pig flows
  • Power vs. natural ventilation
  • manure removal systems
vehicular traffic
Vehicular Traffic
  • Feed, Livestock & Service trucks
  • Perimeter fencing
  • Disinfecting stations
  • Load outs (incoming vs outgoing)
  • Bulk bin access
  • Drivers
      • boots, coveralls, down time,
transportation is huge
Transportation is HUGE!
  • Cleaning and disinfecting is NOT enough!
  • Drying alone may not be the answer either.
  • Only trailer pasteurization done correctly will virtually guarantee success!
    • Truck and trailers cleaned and disinfected
    • “Baked” at 160 for 20 minutes
    • Verification
rodents and birds
Rodents and Birds
  • These are a real and dangerous threat to pig health and the physical plant
  • Bird proof the buildings and hallways
  • Implement a rodent control program
  • Report any signs of bird and rodent activity within the unit
  • Control is essential!
perimeter fencing
Perimeter Fencing
  • To create a barrier to large animals and humans (not rodents)
  • provides a “sense” of security
  • should have a lockable gate
  • electric, high tensile fencing works good for fewer $$$
shower in shower out
Shower in Shower Out
  • Creates a state of mind...does not eliminate possibility of disease.
  • Creates a barrier to entry for visitors
  • Don’t let it be a barrier to entry for employees!
  • What about service personnel? electricians?
    • Create a three tier layer for approval of entry
  • Use common sense!
the shower facility
The Shower Facility
  • Clean it up! Keep it clean! Make it easy?
  • Provide good, clean, dry towels
  • Buy decent shampoo and soap, not just the cheapest! Sauve is O.K.
  • Provide clothes that are clean and that fit.
  • Don’t let the shower be the bottleneck
  • If you can’t do it right...don’t do it half way!
the danes don t shower
The Danes Don’t Shower
  • The Danish system utilizes common sense and self discipline...imagine that!
  • They generally disrobe and put on farm clothes and footwear after thoroughly washing their hands
  • Most provide a hat
  • They identify farms as to health and visit them accordingly
  • Overnight downtime is all they require
  • But, NO one enters through side doors!
the danish system
The Danish System







guest logs
Guest Logs
  • A convenient way to track visitors and convey biosecurity protocols.
  • Is downtime necessary? How much?
  • Overnight? 24, 48, 72, 96 hours?
  • We still have to take into account the disease status of both herds.
feed spills
Feed Spills
  • Keep all feed cleaned up around bulk bins
  • Spilled feed should not be returned to feed system! Consider it contaminated!
  • Feed left laying around will only feed the rodents and birds and stink up the place
  • These spills may be created by the delivery personnel but they must be the responsibility of the unit personnel
dead animal disposal
Dead Animal Disposal
  • Establish a plan and review it periodically
  • The method must comply with local laws and safeguard the farm of origin
  • Do not allow rendering truck on the yard
  • Promptly remove all deads especially in the summer months
  • Pay attention to the P.R. effect dead animals may have on visitors and neighbors
unsalvageable pigs
Unsalvageable Pigs
  • Learn to make the judgment call
  • End their them a favor!
  • Do the farm a favor
  • Establish guidelines
  • Destroy the animals humanely
fly control
Fly Control
  • Flies can be vectors of disease
  • Flies are certainly a nuisance to humans
  • Fly populations are an indicator of hygiene
  • Fly control must be an ongoing, systematic
  • Use all tools available
  • Flies are a primary source of complaints from neighbors
loading chutes
Loading Chutes
  • Next to the pig itself, the loading chutes and trucks are the next most common source of contamination in swine units.
  • Thoroughly wash and disinfect all surfaces before and after each load (load or unload)
  • Don’t allow an animal to come back off a truck.
  • Lock all external access to loadouts!
  • Consider all trucks and trailers dirty!
  • Farms should not share equipment which has been inside other swine barns
  • Thorough cleaning and disinfections are absolutely essential if equipment must be shared (such as ultra sound equipment)
    • Use some common’s unlikely the farm can afford a welder in every finisher!
    • But, a disinfected syringe is unlikely to shed disease organisms
the single largest threat to farm biosecurity
The Single Largest Threat to Farm Biosecurity
  • Incoming stock
  • Most farms “buy” their disease and help unload it off the truck!
boot baths
Boot Baths
  • They are there for a purpose!
  • Keep them in a convenient place
  • Keep them fresh with disinfectant
  • Provide a hose and boot brush to knock off the worst before ever stepping into bath
  • Use foot baths entering and exiting the rooms
  • Use a separate boot wash area
  • A dirty, poorly maintained boot bath is WORSE than none at all!
  • Industrial Sabotage
  • Can anyone prevent it?
  • Would we ever really know?
  • Education, education, education!
    • Make all visitors jump through hoops
    • Create a three layered approval system prior to entry.
farm biosecurity audits
Farm Biosecurity Audits
  • How far is the farm from other swine?
    • What direction are they?
    • Are there natural barriers?
    • What is the prevailing wind?
    • What type of farm is the closest and how many animals do they have?
  • How dense is the swine population in the area? county? region?
farm biosecurity audit
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is there perimeter fencing which provide a barrier to livestock and humans?
  • Are there entrance signs with clear instructions for visitors?
  • Is the site free of spilled feed, trash and debris?
  • Is the site mowed and weeds controlled?
  • Is the manager proud to be a pork producer?
  • Has he taken “ownership”?
farm biosecurity audit1
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is the farm visible from the road, a school, a church?
  • Are there bird and rodent controls in place?
  • Is there a valid waste management plan in place?
  • Does the unit share equipment with other producers?
farm biosecurity audit2
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is the feed delivered in dedicated trucks?
  • If not, do you know where the truck has been prior to your delivery?
  • Do you clean and disinfect the trucks wheels?
  • Does the feed truck enter the perimeter fence?
  • Does the driver open bins?
  • Is the feed in meal form or pelleted?
  • Are there any animal biproducts in the feed?
farm biosecurity audit3
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Are employees allowed to own pigs or care for non-farm pigs after hours?
  • Do employees frequent county fairs, sale barns?
  • Do employees leave the unit during the day and then return without showering?
  • Do employees ever enter the trucks being loaded or unloaded?
farm biosecurity audit4
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Are all trucks that are used to deliver and pick up pigs washed, disinfected, and allowed to dry before they back up to the barn loading chute?
  • Are the trailers pasteurized?
  • Is there an offsite truck wash (trailer baker) site for the farm?
  • Are drivers required to wear disposable boots and coveralls? What do they do with them?
farm biosecurity audit5
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is there a farm biosecurity manual?
  • Are biosecurity procedures rigidly enforced and are there written penalties for violations?
  • Do biosecurity procedures hinder good herdsmanship?
  • Do the biosecurity procedures force some employees to “cheat” in order to do their job?
farm biosecurity audit6
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is there a bonafide rodent control plan?
  • Is the unit bird proofed?
  • Is there a fly problem or are there good control measures in place?
  • How close can other livestock approach the unit?
  • Are there professionally looking signs identifying the site with emergency #’s?
farm biosecurityaudit
Farm BiosecurityAudit
  • Are the dead stock removed in a safe and efficient manner with minimal biosecurity risk to the animals in the unit?
  • Are the deads concealed from view of neighbors and visitors?
  • Are rendering trucks allowed to come onto the premise?
farm biosecurity audit7
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is there clean and comfortable shower facilities with plenty of space for undressing and dressing?
  • Does the unit provide clean, well-fitting clothing and underwear for employees and visitors?
  • Is there adequate soap, shampoo, and fingernail brushes available?
farm biosecurity audit8
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is there a visitor log along with downtime requirements at the entrance?
  • Are showering procedures and requirements posted in a prominent readable format?
  • Is the office kept neat, clean, and well organized?
  • Is there a brush or comb and mirror?
farm biosecurity audit9
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Is the farms overall hygiene good with minimal dust, odor, humidity and flies?
  • Is there a good record system in place with good access by the employees in the barns with routine analysis for problems?
  • Does the farm practice all-in / all-out, SEW, unidirectional pig flow, AI, and proper isolation of incoming stock?
farm biosecurity audit10
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Does the farm use a veterinary consultant?
  • Are there foot baths with fresh disinfectant at the entrances to different barns, phases?
    • Are the foot baths cleaned regularly?
  • Are the walk ways and alleys washed down regularly?
  • Are the farm employees PQA Level III certified?
farm biosecurity audit11
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • Are there any serious disease problems in the herd? Are pigs post mortem examined?
  • What was the sow herd, pre-weaning, nursery, finishing mortality rates in the previous twelve months?
  • Is there routine serological monitoring performed on a regular basis?
  • When was the last slaughter check done?
farm biosecurity audit12
Farm Biosecurity Audit
  • What is the water source on the farm?
    • Is it chlorinated? filtered?
    • Has it been checked lately?
  • Are there any open flush gutters employed on the farm?
  • Does manure ever back up over the slats?
  • Do any animals ever have access to dirt?