Unit 4

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SSUSH7. The student will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.. SSUSH7. b.Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of

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Unit 4

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1. Unit #4 Reform & Westward Expansion (18181850) Chapters 89

2. SSUSH7 The student will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.

3. SSUSH7 b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.

4. Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny- The 19th century belief that the United States should be a two ocean nation. The belief began in 1803 with the Purchase of Louisiana and continued until 1853 with the Gadsden Purchase.

5. Manifest Destiny

6. Manifest Destiny Expansionists- Those who favored the growth of the United States by acquiring territory for expansion. Generally were Southerners and Democrats. Non-Expansionists- Those who were against the United States acquiring territory for expansion. Generally were Northerners and Whigs.

7. Manifest Destiny (p. 5) 3. What difficulties and opportunities awaited emigrants to the West? Difficulties included: Hunger, thirst, exposure to the elements, attacks by Native Americans, and disease. Opportunities included: Land, freedom, and potential for wealth.

8. Manifest Destiny

9. Manifest Destiny Mountain Men- Traders and adventurers who crossed the Rockies seeking furs. They lived a solitary and rugged existence. They blazed new trails for the settlers who sought faster travel west of the Rockies.

10. Manifest Destiny (p. 5) 1. What role did the Mountain Men play in westward expansion? They explored the West and established major trails, which settlers followed. In addition, stories of their exploits helped fuel and motivate people west.

11. Manifest Destiny Convention of 1818- The compromise between the United States and Britain over the land north of Louisiana bordering Canada. The Treaty set the boundary between the United States and Canada.

12. Manifest Destiny Santa Fe Trail- Southwestern trail from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe (Mexican Territory).

13. Manifest Destiny Oregon Trail- Northwestern trail from Independence, Missouri to Fort Walla Walla (Oregon Territory).

14. Manifest Destiny Brigham Young- Mormon Church leader who led followers west from Illinois to the Utah Territory (1847). Established the colony of New Zion near the Great Salt Lake.

15. Manifest Destiny Mormon Trail- Trail from Nauvoo, Illinois, to the Great Salt Lake (Utah Territory) that nearly 40,000 Mormons traveled.

16. Manifest Destiny (p. 5) 2. Why did Brigham Young lead Mormons West? To establish the colony of New Zion and escape the religious prosecution experienced in Illinois.

17. Manifest Destiny Native American Conflicts- As settlers pushed west, fighting broke out with Native Americans along the various trails. Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851)- Treaty between which restricted Native Americans from the Oregon Territory to avoid conflict in the region.

18. Expansion in Texas Mexican Independence- In 1820, Mexico declared its independence from Spain. Texas- Mexican province which offered fertile land whose residents were known as Tejanos. Located between Mexicos more populated provinces and Native American territories.

19. Expansion in Texas Stephen F. Austin- Leader of United States settlers into the province of Texas. Settlers were promised fertile land to farm by the Mexican government. In exchange, settlers had to accept Catholicism and give up slavery.

20. Manifest Destiny (p. 5) 4. What issues led Anglo-Texans and Tejanos to seek independence from Mexico? The Anglo-Texans and Tejanos were dissatisfied with the unstable Mexican government, and later, with Santa Annas centralized dictatorship.

21. Mexican Control Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna- Assumed the power over the Mexican government in 1834. Wanted tighter control over the government (including Texas).

22. Texas Revolution Autonomy- In response to the Santa Anna government, the Texans began to revolt and an independent state. The Texas Revolution (18361837) was led by Sam Houston.

23. Texas Revolution

24. Texas Revolution Sam Houston- Leader of the Texans in rebellion against Mexico. Organized an army to fight Santa Anna. Hero of the Battle of San Jacinto winning the rebellion.

25. Remember the Alamo The Alamo- A Spanish mission in San Antonio. Became the site of a stand-off by 200 Texans against Santa Annas army of over 4,000. The small Texas force were led by William Travis, Jim Buey, and Davy Crockett. All in the Alamo were killed or executed after capture. Rallying cry , Remember the Alamo inspired Texans will to fight.

26. Remember the Alamo

27. Remember the Alamo

28. The End of the Texas Revolution Battle of San Jacinto- Turning point of the war as 900Texans defeated Santa Annas forces of 1,200. Santa Anna was captured and forced to cede Texas to the rebels north of the Rio Grande.

29. Lone Star Republic Lone Star Republic- Texas became an independent republic (18361845) . Sam Houston was elected as its president. Annex- To add new territory to an existing nation.

30. Texas Annexation? Annexation Debate- Southerners wanted Texas to enter the Union as a slave state (supported by Democrats). Northerners opposed Texas entering the Union because of its potential division into many slave states (supported by Whigs). President Andrew Jackson wanted annexation, but could not persuade Congress to his view.

31. SSUSH7 Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism by including the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters), and public school.

32. The Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening- Sparked the Social Reform movements (18301860). Christian evangelicals traveled from revival to revival preaching the Gospel and called on believers to become socially active. Religion motivated many to become social reformers through good works.

33. The Second Great Awakening Charles Finney- The most influential revivalist who gave passionate sermons who gave rise to the Second Great Awakening. Revivalist- Preachers who wanted to revive the role of religion in the United States.

34. Religion & Reform (p. 1) 1. What impact did the Second Great Awakening have on other movements? The Second Great Awakening sparked the Social Reform movements (18301860). Christian evangelicals traveled from revival to revival preaching the Gospel and called on believers to become socially active. Religion motivated many to become social reformers through good works, but also fostered discrimination.

35. Religion & Reform (p. 1) 2. Why did many Americans discriminate against non-Protestants? The majority of Americans were generally White Anglo-Saxon Protestants who discriminated based on economic condition, racism, and religious differences.

36. The Mormon Church Joseph Smith- Organizer of the Mormon Church of Latter-day Saints in 1830. Mormon- In the 1830s and 1840s, the Church grew rapidly in New York and spread west.

37. Unitarianism Unitarian- Religion founded by New England Puritans and Congregationalists who saw God as a Trinity. The religion reflected a less than literal translation of the Bible.

38. Utopian Societies Utopian Community- Societies built perfection by establishing communities based on the sharing of property, labor, and family life. Two of the most noted societies were Brook Farm in Massachusetts (18411848) and New Harmony in Indiana (18241827). Most utopian societies were short-lived.

39. Shakers Shaker Communities- Believers of Christs Second Coming. Organized in the late 1700s, the communities peaked in the 1840s. Men and women lived separately and the societies only grew when they converted new members or took in orphans.

40. Religion & Reform (p. 1) 3. Describe the beliefs of the utopian groups and Shakers. Utopian Groups- Societies built perfection by establishing communities based on the sharing of property, labor, and family life. Shaker Communities- Believers of Christs Second Coming. Organized (late 1700s), but peaked in the 1840s. Men and women lived separately and the societies only grew when they converted new members or orphans.

41. Transcendentalism Transcendentalist- New England movement founded by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Transcendentalists believed that people could transcend their senses to learn about the world to search for truth about the universe. Individuals were encouraged to listen to nature instead of religious doctrines.

42. Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson- Former minister and father of Transcendentalism. Believed people should find God by transcending the material world and embracing the natural world.

43. Transcendentalism Henry David Thoreau- American writer of the 19th century. Author of Walden (a two-year subsistence living). Believed in civil disobedience which supports an individuals right to break the law if the law goes against that persons belief.

44. Religion & Reform (p. 2) 3. (contd) Describe the beliefs of the Transcendentalists. Transcendentalists- New England movement founded by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Transcendentalists believed that people could transcend their senses to learn about the world to search for truth about the universe. Individuals were encouraged to listen to nature instead of religious doctrines.

45. Public School Movement Public School Movement- Belief that all men and women should have access to government education. Horace Mann helped create the state Board of Education in Massachusetts. The concept quickly spread to other areas of the United States (primarily the North) His accomplishment gave rise to the nations literacy rate and educated populace.

46. Religion & Reform (p. 2) 4. What did Horace Mann and the public school movement accomplish? Horace Mann was the leader of the Public School Movement in the early-to-mid 19th century. States (mainly in the North) established free public schools that children were required to attend, and the percentage of American children attending school increased dramatically. Schools were also established to create a large number of well-educated teachers.

47. Prison Reform Movement Dorothea Dix- Campaigned for changes in the prison and mental health facilities. Penitentiary Movement- The changes resulted in two models involving individual confinement and repentance.

48. Religion & Reform (p. 2) 5. What motivated Dorothea Dix to campaign for reform? While teaching Sunday school in a prison, she became alarmed by the conditions in which some prisoners were kept.

49. Temperance Movement Temperance- Leaders included women and churches. The members of this movement pushed to moderate the use of alcohol. By the 1850s, many states had passed laws to limit the consumption of alcohol. Some states went as far as prohibiting the sale of alcohol.

50. Religion & Reform (p. 2) 6. How successful was the temperance movement? It was not successful nationwide, but some states did pass laws limiting the consumption of alcohol.

51. SSUSH8 a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).

52. Freedmen & Slaves Nat Turner- Slave who organized a major slave revolt in 1831. Revolt resulted in 160 deaths (both black and white) and led to an increase in slave codes in the South. Turner was captured, tried, and hanged.

53. Religion & Reform (p. 2) 7. How did enslaved people resist their captivity? They took comfort in religion and family, sabotaged equipment, planned revolts, and escaped.

54. Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist Movement- The movement first began with Ben Franklin in the early1790s. By the 1830s, the movement gained momentum in the North while being ridiculed in the South. Members included middle class whites (mostly educated) from New England, Congregational churches, Quakers, and freed Blacks.

55. Abolitionist Movement William Lloyd Garrison- Massachusetts leader in the Abolitionist Movement. Editor of The Liberator (an abolitionist newspaper started in 1831) which attacked those who perpetuated the institution of slavery. Helped establish the American Anti-Slavery Society.

56. Abolitionist Movement Frederick Douglass- Former slave who escaped and fled to New England. Self-educated. Great public orator and staunch abolitionist who fought for abolition.

57. Religion & Reform (p. 3) 8. How did abolitionists attempt to bring about the end of slavery? Abolitionists created anti-slavery publications, formed abolitionist societies, and made speeches (all using moral persuasion to support their arguments).

58. Abolitionist Movement Congress Debates Slavery- The issue of slavery became heated with the question of Texas annexation. Gag Rule- The rule established to stop the discussion of slavery (18361844).

59. Abolitionist Movement Sojourner Truth- A former slave who lived in New York and pushed to end slavery. Great orator who helped grow the movement with her speeches.

60. Abolitionist Movement Angelina & Sarah Grimke- Sisters who were members of a southern slave-holding family. Both fought to end slavery in South. Gave speeches and won national acclaim for their passionate speeches.

61. Religion & Reform (p. 3) 9. Why did many Americans, both in the North and South, oppose abolition? Many Americans opposed abolition for these reasons: The importance of slavery to the Souths economy and certain northern industries. The wish to avoid competition for jobs with free Blacks as laborers. Racism (the belief that Blacks were inferior).

62. SSUSH7 d. Explain womens efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Convention.

63. Womens Rights Movement Womens Rights Movement- Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott in the mid-1800s (Susan B. Anthony in the latter part of the 19th century). The Womens Rights movement was a bi-product of the abolition and temperance movements. In addition to rights, the concept of womens suffrage remained a part of the movement.

64. Religion & Reform (p. 3) 10. What led to women becoming leaders of various reform movements? The Second Great Awakening caused women to seek a more active role in public life. Women and children were the primary victims of alcohol abuse by husbands and fathers. Women took an active role in the temperance movement. Economic independence gained from working in factories led some women to form a degree of social independence.

65. Womens Rights Movement Lucretia Mott- Effective public speaker traveled the nation to reform womens rights. Worked with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to organize the Seneca Falls Convention. Elizabeth Cady Stanton- Organized the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. Delivered the Declaration of Sentiments at the convention.

66. Religion & Reform (p. 3) 11. What conditions led women to start to work to gain rights? Women, who were energized by working rights of others, realized that they had very few rights themselves and decided to work for change.

67. Womens Rights Movement Amelia Bloom- Attendee of the Seneca Falls Convention who published a newspaper advocating equal rights. Margaret Fuller- Transcendentalist writer who wrote Women in the Nineteenth Century which provided ideals for the movement.

68. Womens Rights Movement Seneca Falls Convention- Site of the 1848 Womens Rights Convention in up-state New York. Declaration of Sentiments- Called for women to be treated as equals and to have suffrage (the right to vote).

69. Religion & Reform (p. 3) 12. What role did Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott play in the womens rights movement? Both Stanton and Mott energized the movement and pushed for equal rights and organized the first womens rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.

70. SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing North-South divisions and westward expansion.

71. SSUSH8 c. Analyze the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.

72. Antebellum Issues Agricultural South- Planters in the South depended on slaves to provide labor for large plantations. Southern politicians fought to protect slavery and expand it in new territories.

73. Antebellum Issues Commercial North- Economy did not directly depend on slave trade. Abolitionists and northern Whigs believed slavery was immoral. Northern politicians fought to stop slavery and keep it from expanding into new territories.

74. Antebellum Issues States Rights & Sectionalism- The struggle between the two regions led to many battles in Congress and for power in the government and the rise of sectionalism. Southerners responded to the struggle by advocating states rights and a strict constructionist view of the federal government.

75. Dispute Over Oregon Oregon Territory- In 1827, the United States and Britain agreed on a joint occupation of the territory. By 1843, thousands of new settlers to the region making it an issue in the 1844 Presidential Election. In the election, Polk argued for the territory to expand to the 54th Parallel Britain disputed the claim. The dispute led to the slogan Fifty-four, Forty, or Fight! and Polks willing to go to war over the territory.

76. Election of 1844 Presidential Election of 1844-

77. President James K. Polk 7th President 18451849 Party: Democratic Home State: Tennessee Vice President: George Dallas

78. President James K. Polk Foreign Texas Joins the Union (1845) Acquired the Oregon Territory (1846) President during the Mexican War (18461848)

79. Manifest Destiny Complete Treaty with Britain (1846) Polk negotiated a treaty with Britain over the Oregon Territory setting the Canadian border at the 49th Parallel. Annexation of Texas- Inspired by Polks win, President John Tyler called a joint-session of Congress which admitted Texas as a slave state in 1845.

80. Manifest Destiny (p. 5) 5. What compromise did the United States and Britain reach regarding the Oregon Territory? Both the United States and Britain split the territory at the 48th Parallel of latitude. The British kept the modern-day province of British Columbia. The United States obtained the future states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho.

81. Prelude to War Border Issue- Mexico was angry with Texas Annexation and began to dispute the Rio Grande. Expansion West- To resolve the Texas issue, Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to negotiate the disputed area and negotiate a purchase of California and New Mexico. The Mexican government refused to meet Slidell.

82. Prelude to War Battle of Palo Alto (May, 1846)- General Zachary Taylor was sent south of the Nueces River to the Rio Grande to enforce the United States claim to the disputed area. Mexico sent troops and attacked Taylors forces at the first battle of the Mexican War.

83. Manifest Destiny (p. 6) 6. What advantages did the United States have in the Mexican War? The United States was larger, had more population, could produce more war supplies, had excellent officers in the military, and equipped a larger and well-equipped navy. In addition, Mexicans were divided over the dictatorship of the Santa Anna.

84. Prelude to War

85. War Declared Declaration of War- Polk drafted a declaration of war in which Congress voted just following the Battle of Palo Alto. Democrats supported war while the Whigs argued against it. Mexico saw the clash as a defensive measure and Taylors movement an invasion.

86. Mexican War Winfield Scott- Commander of the forces which led an amphibious attack at the battle of Veracruz. Capture of the Mexican Capital Scott moved on the capital city and captured speeding-up the end of the war.

87. Mexican War

88. Mexican War

89. War in California John C. Fremont- Leader of United States forces fighting Mexico in California. Bear Flag Revolt- Joint effort by Fremont and Stephen Kearnys New Mexico forces won California.

90. The Mexican War Ends Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)- The treaty which ended the Mexican War and ceded nearly 1.2 trillion square miles to the United States.

91. Manifest Destiny (p. 6) 7. How did the Mexican War serve to heighten tensions over slavery? The war gave the United States new territories (potential states) which could upset the balance of power between the North and the South.

92. Acquiring New Territory Mexican Cession of 1848- The area given up by Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Gadsden Purchase (1853)- The area obtained by the United States to help facilitate a future railroad route.

93. Gold Discovered California Gold Rush- The Rush to California as a result of gold being discovered at Sutters Mill in January of 1848. Forty-Niners- The nearly40,000 fortune seekers who fled to California in 1849.

94. Gold Discovered Placer Mining- The use of pans, picks, and shovels to mine for gold in rivers and streams. Hydraulic Mining- The use of jets of water to erode hills and mountains to locate gold.

95. Manifest Destiny (p. 6) What problems did Forty-niners face in the California gold fields? Violence, disease, loneliness, and overcrowded areas.

96. California Statehood? The Issue of Statehood- In 1849, delegates to the territory drew up a state constitution and applied for statehood. In 1850, Californias entry would lead to a controversy: slave or free state?

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