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TEMPEST: Testing and Evaluating Model Predictions of European Storms. TEMPEST: Testing and Evaluating Model Predictions of European Storms ‘What’s past is prologue; what to come, in yours and my discharge.’ Act 2, Scene 1, The Tempest. Aims of the meeting.

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TEMPEST: Testing and Evaluating Model Predictions of European Storms


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TEMPEST: Testing and Evaluating Model Predictions of European Storms

‘What’s past is prologue; what to come, in yours and my discharge.’Act 2, Scene 1, The Tempest


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Aims of the meeting

  • 1. Review and discuss the science plan for TEMPEST

    • Overview Len Shaffrey

    • WP1 Kevin Hodges

    • WP2 Tim Woollings

    • WP3 Tim Palmer

    • PhD studentships

      2. A non-exhaustive overview of related UK research

    • Presentations from related projects

    • Help with project planning

  • 3. Overview of the Storm Risk Mitigation (SRM) programme

    • DIAMET (NWP) and DEMON (Impacts)

    • SRM Programme communication, management and integration


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People and Institutions

NCAS, ReadingMet Dept, Reading

Len Shaffrey Brian Hoskins

Dave BrayshawHelen Dacre

Mike BlackburnTim Woollings

NCEO, Reading Exeter University

Kevin Hodges Renato Vitolo

David Stephenson

Oxford University

Tim PalmerMet Office (Partner)

Ruth McDonald

ECMWF (Partner)Simon Brown

tbc

Reading – Giuseppe Zappa, Ben Harvey, Matt Hawcroft

Oxford – Andrew Dawson

Exeter – Phil Sansom


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Overview and Objectives

Q1. How will climate change affect the generation and evolution of extra-tropical cyclones? How large are these effects compared to natural variability?

WP1 Provide the first systematic assessment of the predictions of intense extratropical cyclones in the CMIP5 models using established and innovative analysis methodologies.

Q2. Which physical processes are most important, and which predicted changes are most robust?

WP2 Perform an integrated set of sensitivity experiments that will quantify the impact of key processes in driving changes in the North Atlantic and European storm track.

Q3. How important are the features and processes that climate models poorly represent due to their limited resolution?

WP3 Investigate the impact of climate change on intense extratropical cyclones, and their upscale effects, in very high-resolution global atmospheric model experiments capable of capturing mesoscale structures.

WP4 Develop an integrated research community to tackle the questions surrounding the impact of climate change on extratropical cyclones and engage the wider scientific community and external stakeholders.


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Overview and Objectives

Q1. How will climate change affect the generation and evolution of extra-tropical cyclones? How large are these effects compared to natural variability?

WP1Provide the first systematic assessment of the predictions of intense extratropical cyclones in the CMIP5 models using established and innovative analysis methodologies.

Q2. Which physical processes are most important, and which predicted changes are most robust?

WP2 Perform an integrated set of sensitivity experiments that will quantify the impact of key processes in driving changes in the North Atlantic and European storm track.

Q3. How important are the features and processes that climate models poorly represent due to their limited resolution?

WP3 Investigate the impact of climate change on intense extratropical cyclones, and their upscale effects, in very high-resolution global atmospheric model experiments capable of capturing mesoscale structures.

WP4 Develop an integrated research community to tackle the questions surrounding the impact of climate change on extratropical cyclones and engage the wider scientific community and external stakeholders.


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WP4 Integration and pull-through Lead Shaffrey

WP1 Assessing Storms

Lead Hodges

PDRA at Reading

WP2 Quantifying Processes Lead Shaffrey

PDRA at Reading

WP3 Impact of Resolution

Lead Palmer

PDRA at Oxford

Student Statistical Modelling of Trends Exeter

Student Latent Heat Release in Storms Reading

TEMPEST Project Structure

  • Project meetings every six months

    • First meeting in Reading as a kick-off workshop; invite key stakeholders

    • Final meeting in London to disseminate TEMPEST outcomes

  • Total staff request: 3 PDRAs, 2 project studentships


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WP4 Integration and pull-through Lead Shaffrey

WP1 Assessing Storms

Lead Hodges

Giuseppe Zappa

WP2 Quantifying Processes Lead Shaffrey

Ben Harvey

WP3 Impact of Resolution

Lead Palmer

Andrew Dawson

Student Statistical Modelling of Trends Exeter Phil Sansom

Student Latent Heat Release in Storms Reading Matt Hawcroft

TEMPEST Project Status

  • All research positions have been filled

    • Reading University posts have started

    • Oxford and Exeter posts to start at end of Feb

  • Kick-off meeting at Reading University, 8th Feb

    • Cross representation from DIAMET, DEMON and the SMT


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Storm Risk Mitigation Programme

In addition to TEMPEST, an Impacts and a NWP project were also funded by the NERC Storm Risk Mitigation programme

NWP - DIAMET (PI: Geraint Vaughan, Manchester)

Manchester, Leeds, Reading, East Anglia, Met Office

The generation of mesoscalePV anomalies

Physical processes and improving model parameterisations

Predictability

Impacts - DEMON (PI: Paul Bates, Bristol)

Bristol, Reading, Kings College

1. Downscaling and uncertainty propagation 2. Data assimilation and remote sensing

3. Extreme storm surge and fluvial modelling 4. Hydraulic modelling

Storm Risk Mitigation Science Management Team (CEH and BGS)

Annual meetings, programme communication and management, data management etc...


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Project Studentships

  • Statistical Estimation and Understanding of Trends in Extreme Extratropical Cyclones: Phil Sansom (R. Vitolo, D.B. Stephenson - University of Exeter, R.E. McDonald - Met Office)

  • Understanding trends in extra-tropical cyclones from:

    • Reanalyses (e.g. NCEP, ERA-40 and ERA-interim)

    • Climate models (e.g. CMIP5 and HadCM3 perturbed physics ensemble)

    • Time trends analysed using Poisson regression and extreme value models

  • Evaluating latent heat release in extratropical cyclones from high-resolution climate models, remote sensing and global reanalyses: Matt Hawcroft (L. Shaffrey, K. Hodges, H. Dacre - University of Reading)

  • Evaluate latent heat release in high-resolution climate models against a range of remote sensing data and global reanalyses. Storm compositing will be applied to:

    • HiGEM climate model output

    • ERA-Interim global reanalysis data

    • Remote sensing data (ISCCP: International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project and TRMM: Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, which measures rainfall up to latitudes of 50N).


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TEMPEST Summary and Key Outcomes

  • First systematic assessment of how intense extratropical cyclones are predicted to change in the CMIP5 climate models

  • An integrated set of sensitivity experiments with the Met Office Unified Model, which will lead to improved understanding of the spread in climate model projections

  • Analysis of the impact of climate change on intense extratropical cyclones in very high-resolution global atmospheric model experiments capable of capturing mesoscale structures

  • Guidance and advice for the climate impacts assessment community and policy-makers regarding the trustworthiness of climate predictions

  • Developing an integrated research community and wider impacts


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Morning discussion

Points for discussion:

WP1 Implementation of feature tracking across CMIP5

WP2 Priorities: 1. SST 2. Arctic sea ice?

WP3 Practicalities (where will data be stored and/or analysed?)


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Afternoon discussion

Briefly outline:

SRM programme management and governance

SRM programme communication and integration

Collaboration outside of Storm Risk (e.g. CWC, AXA projects…)

Points for discussion:

Internal communication – mailing list and project website, is this enough?

Collaboration a) within SRM and b) outside of SRM

Interaction with stakeholders (DECC, DEFRA, EA, Met Office, ECMWF, Insurance industry, General public)

Next meeting


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SRM Programme Governance

Programme Executive Board (PEB)

The Storm Risk Mitigation Programme will be managed by NERC Swindon Office in conjunction with the Changing Water Cycle Programme.

Programme Advisory Group (PAG)

A Programme Advisory Group (PAG) will advise the PEB on the delivery of the Storm Risk Mitigation Programme. (Dennis Peach, Dave Burridge, Sean Longfield, Ian Townend)

Science Management Team (SMT)

The SMT will be responsible for the day-to-day management and coordination of the SRM and CWC programmes. (Graham Leeks, Daren Gooddy, Lucy Bell, Ann Stokes)


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SRM Programme Communication

Programme Website

www.stormrm.info

Annual SRM programme meetings

First meeting - October 2011

Later meetings jointly with CWC?

Researcher only meetings

SRM mailing lists are also being set up


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SRM Programme Integration

Small amount of funding available to integrate SRM activities

Case Studies and PV Tracers in a climate model?

  • Extratropical cyclone case studies

  • Potential Vorticity diabatic tracer diagnostics

    Proposed work to link:

  • DIAMET, TEMPEST and DEMON with cyclone case studies

  • DIAMET and TEMPEST with PV diabatic tracer diagnostics


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Trough structure

Vertical section

40km

12km

  • Note the sharpness and depth of the tropopause fold in the LAM

  • PV source/sink analysis will indicate that these features are a result of diabatic modification

Courtesy of Jeffrey Chagnon


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Diabatic processes affecting fold/trough structure

Nonconservative PV (Total – Adv only)

LW

LW + Conv

Micro

LW

Conv

Micro

BlyrHtg

Micro + Conv

Conv

Micro + Conv

+ BlyrHtg

  • Tripole structure along fold sharpens gradient

  • Negative anomaly at tropopause level ahead of the trough due mainly to two processes:

    • LW cooling

    • Convective heating

Courtesy of Jeffrey Chagnon


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Trough structure

Vertical section

40km

12km

  • What would these plots look like in a climate model?

Courtesy of Jeffrey Chagnon


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Suggested work plan

1. Compare PV tracer diagnostics in simulations of cyclone case studies using NWP to climate resolutions

  • Run cyclone case studies with the HiGEM climate model with the PV diabatic tracer diagnostic (HiGEM ~100km resolution)

  • Compare with case studies being run in DIAMET (DIAMET cases, T-NAWDEX, 20th Oct 2008, 20th July 2007?)

  • Lots of observations for the DIAMET case studies to evaluate models

  • Output could be utilised by DEMON

    2. Develop extratropical cyclone composites of PV tracer structure from the HiGEM climate model

  • Carry through the understanding gained from the case studies to multi-decadal integrations of HiGEM

  • Composite PV tracer structure for ‘intense’ storm

  • What is an ‘intense’ storm – opportunity for dialogue with DEMON


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Afternoon discussion

Briefly outline:

SRM programme management and governance

SRM programme communication and integration

Collaboration outside of Storm Risk (e.g. CWC, AXA projects…)

Points for discussion:

Internal communication – mailing list and project website, is this enough?

Collaboration a) within SRM and b) outside of SRM

Interaction with stakeholders (DECC, DEFRA, EA, Met Office, ECMWF, Insurance industry, General public)

Next meeting


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TEMPEST Project Communication

Project Website

tempest.nerc.ac.uk

Six monthly project meetings

Alternating locations (Reading, Exeter, Oxford)

Researcher visits to other institutions

TEMPEST mailing list ([email protected])


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TEMPEST links

  • Related Activities

  • Transpose AMIP – running CMIP5 climate models in NWP forecast mode

  • AXA Research Project : Assessing model uncertainties in climate projections of severe European windstorms (Peter Knippertz, Leeds)

  • AXA Research Project: European windstorms in a Changing Climate (David Stephenson, Exeter and Ruth McDonald, Met Office)

  • EU PREDEX: Predictability of Extreme Events (Renato Vitolo, Exeter)

  • Lizzie Froude’s work on error growth in TIGGE forecasts at ESSC, Reading

  • PhD projects at Reading (A. Champion, R. Lee, T. Philp, H. De Leeuw) and at Grantham (E. Thompson)

  • CWC projects – PAGODA (P.L. Vidale) and Hydrological Extremes (A. Wade)

  • EQUIP project (A. Challinor, Leeds)


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TEMPEST links

  • Wider Impacts

  • National (LWEC, JWCRP) and international (CMIP5, AR5) programmes

  • Operational centres and model development (Met Office, ECMWF)

  • Government departments (DEFRA, DECC) and NGOs (Environment Agency)

  • Insurance and reinsurance industries (Willis Research Network)


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Afternoon discussion

Briefly outline:

SRM programme management and governance

SRM programme communication and integration

Collaboration outside of Storm Risk (e.g. CWC, AXA projects…)

Points for discussion:

Internal communication – mailing list and project website, is this enough?

Collaboration a) within SRM and b) outside of SRM

Interaction with stakeholders (DECC, DEFRA, EA, Met Office, ECMWF, Insurance industry, General public)

Next meeting


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WP1 Assessing Changes in Storms

Q1. How will climate change affect the generation and evolution of extra-tropical cyclones? How large are these effects compared to natural variability?

Red: changes in intense events

Blue: changes in total events

Changes in extratropical extremes of daily MSLP in the SRESA1B CMIP3 scenarios (Lambert and Fyfe, 2006)

Previous analyses have only been performed on a subset of climate models, using different methodologies and sometimes using only daily output.


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WP1 Assessing Changes in Storms

  • WP1 Providing the first systematic assessment of climate model predictions of intense extratropical cyclones from the CMIP5 models

  • Opportunity: Six-hourly model output will be archived as part of CMIP5 – apply objective feature tracking algorithm to the CMIP5 models

ERA-40 – DJF Track density

Winter 1979-1980 tracks from a regional climate model

ERA-40


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WP2 Quantifying Key Processes

Q2. Which physical processes are most important, and which predicted changes are most robust?

The spread in CMIP3 projections for North Atlantic and European climate is large

Ensemble mean surface temperature differences for 2080-2099 minus 1980-1999 in the AR4 models

  • Increase in the upper tropospheric temperature contrast

  • Decreased lower tropospheric temperature contrast due to Arctic warming

  • Changes in North Atlantic SSTs associated with the slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

  • Stationary wave changes associated with changes in tropical precipitation

  • The land-sea contrast in surface warming

  • Increased moisture content in a warmer climate


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WP2 Quantifying Key Processes

WP2 Quantifying the key processes driving changes in intense extratropical cyclones

Opportunity: Perform an integrated series of sensitivity experiments with the Unified Model to develop a deeper understanding of how these processes give rise to the large spread in the CMIP3 climate model projections

Zonal mean sensitivity experiments: Upper tropospheric and lower tropospheric temperature contrast

North Atlantic and European sensitivity experiments: Arctic ice extent, Atlantic SST, Land-sea contrast, Stationary waves from changes in tropical precipitation


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WP3 Impact of Resolution

  • Q3. How important are the features and processes that climate models poorly represent due to their limited resolution?

  • WP3 Determining how increased resolution may improve climate predictions of extra-tropical cyclones

  • Opportunity: ECMWF IFS climate runs at T159 (125km), T511 (40km), T1279 (20km) and T2047 (10km) resolution with present day and future climate forcings

Propogation

HiGEM – DJF 925hPa wind and mslp composites

ERA-40 – DJF 925hPa wind and mslp composites

ERA-40


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WP4 Integration and Pull-through

  • Links to the Storm Risk NWP deliverable

  • Scope to use results from DIAMET to investigate storm processes in extratropical cyclones in climate models:

  • Run NWP forecasts with the TEMPEST models for the DIAMET case studies

  • PV diagnostics, diabatic processes and storm structure

  • Analysis of systematic error growth in ECMWF forecasts (Thomas Jung)

  • Comparison of tracking methodologies

  • Remote sensing? (Latent heat release studentship at Reading)

  • Links to the Storm Risk Impacts deliverable

  • What output from climate models are most robust?

  • What constitutes an ‘intense’ storm (e.g. redo tracking for slow-moving storms that produce intense rainfall in one location)?


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WP4 Integration and Pull-through

  • Wider Impacts

  • National (LWEC, JWCRP) and international (CMIP5, AR5) programmes

  • Operational centres and model development (Met Office, ECMWF)

  • Government departments (DEFRA, DECC) and NGOs (Environment Agency)

  • Insurance and reinsurance industries (Willis Research Network)

  • Related Activities

  • Transpose AMIP – running CMIP5 climate models in NWP forecast mode

  • AXA Research Project : Assessing model uncertainties in climate projections of severe European windstorms (Peter Knippertz, Leeds)

  • AXA Research Project: European windstorms in a Changing Climate (David Stephenson, Exeter and Ruth McDonald, Met Office)

  • EU PREDEX: Predictability of Extreme Events (Renato Vitolo, Exeter)

  • Lizzie Froude’s work on error growth in TIGGE forecasts at ESSC, Reading

  • PhD projects at Reading (A. Champion, R. Lee, T. Philp, H. De Leeuw) and at Grantham (E. Thompson)


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TEMPEST Summary and Key Outcomes

  • First systematic assessment of how intense extratropical cyclones are predicted to change in the CMIP5 climate models

  • An integrated set of sensitivity experiments with the Met Office Unified Model, which will lead to improved understanding of the spread in climate model projections

  • Analysis of the impact of climate change on intense extratropical cyclones in very high-resolution global atmospheric model experiments capable of capturing mesoscale structures

  • Guidance and advice for the climate impacts assessment community and policy-makers regarding the trustworthiness of climate predictions

  • Developing an integrated research community and wider impacts


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Project Timeframe


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Poleward shift of the jet

U850; AR4 models 2080-99 (A2) – 1980-99 (20th Century runs); Lorenz and DeWeaver, 2007


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Differences in the North Atlantic

Laine et al 2009

There are some very different responses in the North Atlantic

These could be due to different local SST changes


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