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GROUP 5. ANNIS LUTHFIANA 2201410051 AULYA PURNAWIDHA D. 2201410053 FITA ARIYANA 2201410075. CHAPTER 7. LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF INTERLANGUAGE BY: ROD ELLIS. TYPOLOGICAL UNIVERSALS: RELATIVE CLAUSES.

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Group 5

GROUP 5

ANNIS LUTHFIANA2201410051

AULYA PURNAWIDHA D.2201410053

FITA ARIYANA2201410075


Chapter 7

CHAPTER 7

LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF INTERLANGUAGE

BY: ROD ELLIS


Typological universals relative clauses

TYPOLOGICAL UNIVERSALS: RELATIVE CLAUSES

Languages vary in whether they have relative clauses structures. This linguistic difference influences the ease with which learners are able to learn relative clauses.


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In language like English, a relative clause can be attached to the end of matrix clause:

  • The police have caught the man who bombed the hotel.

    Or they can be embedded in the main clause:

  • The man who bombed the hotel has been caught by the police.


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Linguistic have shown that languages are more likely to permit relative clauses with a subject pronoun than with an object pronoun. It is called accessibility hierarchy.

For example:

the use of who rather than the use of whom


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The accesibility hierarchy serves as an example of how SLA and linguistics can assist each other.

  • Linguistic facts can be used to explain and even predict acquisition.

  • The results of empirical studies of L2 acquisition can be used to refine our understanding of linguistic facts.


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Effects of relative clause structure on L2 acquisition

  • It is easier to learn a L2 with relative clauses if you already know them from your L1.

  • There are two ways to use relative clauses in English: attached to the end of a sentence or interrupting a main clause.

    Learners of L2 English tend to use the first possibility.


Universal grammar

UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR

Noam Chomsky`s theory of Universal grammar:

Example: (Reflexives)

Language

governed by a set of highly abstract principles.


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Result: Japanese Learners of L2 English do have to learn that reflexives in English permit only local binding. The question if they are able to do so could not be answered clearly. Not even by a number of studies. It is not absolutely clear, although very important.


Learnability

LEARNABILITY

  • Children learning their L1 must rely on innate knowledge of a language.

  • Poverty of stimulus insufficiency which enables children to discover the rules of a language.

  • Input Positive evidence: what is gramatical

    theirparents do notgenerallycorrecttheirgrammaticalmistakes

    Negative evidence: what is ungrammatical


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  • The inputseriouslyundetermineslearning, itdoesnotprovidetheinformationneededforlearningtobesuccessful

  • Childrenmusthave prior knowledge of whatisgrammaticallypossible and impossible and thatthisispart of theirbiologicalendowment.


The c ritical pe riod h ypothesis

TheCriticalPeriodHypothesis

  • The Critical Period Hypothesis

    states that there is a period when language acquisition is easy and complete, and beyond which it is difficult and incomplete.

  • Peoplewholosttheirlinguisticcapabilities: as a result of anaccident, wereabletoregainthemtotallybeforepubertybutwereunableto do so afterwards.


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Thereis a considerable evidencethatsupportstheclaimthat L2 learnerswhobeginlerning as adults are unabletoachievenative-speaker competence in eithergrammarorpronunciation (Immigrants in theUnitedStates).

Notalllearners are subjecttocriticalperiods. Someachievenative-speaker abilityfromanadultstart.

Therelativelack of success of most L2 learners in comparisonto L1 learnerssuggeststhattheremaybe radical differences in thewayfirst and secondlanguages are acquired.


Access to ug

Access to UG


Markedness

Markedness

For example, ‘local binding’ of reflexives is considered unmarked in relation to ‘long-distance binding’.


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  • It has been proposed that learners are much more likely to transfer unmarked structures from their L1 than their marked structures.


Cognitive versus linguistic explanations

Cognitive Versus Linguistic Explanations


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