GROUP 5. ANNIS LUTHFIANA 2201410051 AULYA PURNAWIDHA D. 2201410053 FITA ARIYANA 2201410075. CHAPTER 7. LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF INTERLANGUAGE BY: ROD ELLIS. TYPOLOGICAL UNIVERSALS: RELATIVE CLAUSES.
AULYA PURNAWIDHA D.2201410053
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF INTERLANGUAGE
BY: ROD ELLIS
Languages vary in whether they have relative clauses structures. This linguistic difference influences the ease with which learners are able to learn relative clauses.
In language like English, a relative clause can be attached to the end of matrix clause:
Or they can be embedded in the main clause:
Linguistic have shown that languages are more likely to permit relative clauses with a subject pronoun than with an object pronoun. It is called accessibility hierarchy.
the use of who rather than the use of whom
The accesibility hierarchy serves as an example of how SLA and linguistics can assist each other.
Effects of relative clause structure on L2 acquisition
Learners of L2 English tend to use the first possibility.
Noam Chomsky`s theory of Universal grammar:
governed by a set of highly abstract principles.
Result: Japanese Learners of L2 English do have to learn that reflexives in English permit only local binding. The question if they are able to do so could not be answered clearly. Not even by a number of studies. It is not absolutely clear, although very important.
theirparents do notgenerallycorrecttheirgrammaticalmistakes
Negative evidence: what is ungrammatical
states that there is a period when language acquisition is easy and complete, and beyond which it is difficult and incomplete.
Thereis a considerable evidencethatsupportstheclaimthat L2 learnerswhobeginlerning as adults are unabletoachievenative-speaker competence in eithergrammarorpronunciation (Immigrants in theUnitedStates).
Notalllearners are subjecttocriticalperiods. Someachievenative-speaker abilityfromanadultstart.
Therelativelack of success of most L2 learners in comparisonto L1 learnerssuggeststhattheremaybe radical differences in thewayfirst and secondlanguages are acquired.
For example, ‘local binding’ of reflexives is considered unmarked in relation to ‘long-distance binding’.