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ACIDS AND BASES. Characteristics of Acids. Taste Sour React with metals Electrolytes (conduct electricity) Affect indicators (red=acid) Neutralize Bases pH between 0 and <7. Characteristics of Bases. Taste Bitter Feel Slippery Electrolytes (conduct electricity) Neutralize Acids

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Acids and bases

ACIDS AND BASES


Characteristics of acids
Characteristics of Acids

  • Taste Sour

  • React with metals

  • Electrolytes (conduct electricity)

  • Affect indicators

    (red=acid)

  • Neutralize Bases

  • pH between 0 and <7


Characteristics of bases
Characteristics of Bases

  • Taste Bitter

  • Feel Slippery

  • Electrolytes (conduct electricity)

  • Neutralize Acids

    (Antacids)

  • Affect indicators

    (base=blue)

  • pH between >7 and 14


Examples of acids
Examples of Acids

  • HCl monoprotic

  • H2SO4diprotic

  • H3PO4 triprotic

  • HNO3


Examples of bases
Examples of Bases

  • NaOH

  • Ca(OH)2

  • KOH

  • Soap, Ammonia,

  • Baking Soda


There are 2 definitions for acids and bases
There are 2 definitions for acids and bases

  • Arrhenius Theory

  • Brønsted-Lowry Theory


On acids an acid is a substance that ionizes in water to give hydrogen ions h

Arrehenius Theory

ON ACIDS…An acid is a substance that ionizes in water to give hydrogen ions (H+)


On bases a base is a substance that ionizes in water to give hydroxide ions oh

Arrehenius Theory

ON BASES…A base is a substance that ionizes in water to give hydroxide ions (OH-)


An example of the reaction of hydrochloric acid
An example of the reaction of Hydrochloric Acid:

HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl-

When the HCl breaks apart the free H+is attracted to the H2O and forms a HYDRONIUM ION


An example of the reaction of potassium hydroxide
An example of the reaction of Potassium Hydroxide:

KOH(aq) +  K+(aq) + OH-(aq)

When the KOH breaks apart it forms the HYDROXIDE ION (OH-)


So who is the arrhenius acid given
So who is the Arrhenius Acid given:

H2SO4 + H2O  H3O+ + HSO4-

H2SO4

Why?

Because it produces H+


So who is the arrhenius base given
So who is the Arrhenius Base given:

NaOH + H2O  Na+ + OH- + H2O

NaOH

Why?

Because it produces OH-


The world was cool with the arrehenius definition until nh 3 ammonia came along
The world was cool with the Arrehenius definition until NH3 (Ammonia) came along.

When combined with water it did not make OH- ions…looks like we need a new definition.


On acids acids are substances that are capable of donating a proton h

Brønsted-Lowry Theory

ON ACIDS…Acids are substances that are capable of donating a proton (H+)


On bases bases are substances that are capable of accepting a proton h

Brønsted-Lowry Theory

ON BASES…Bases are substances that are capable of accepting a proton (H+)


Example of br nsted acids and bases
Example of Brønsted Acids and Bases:

NH3 + H2O  NH4+ + OH-

Here, H2O acts as a Brønsted acid by donating a proton to NH3 which acts as a Brønsted base.


Example of br nsted acids and bases1
Example of Brønsted Acids and Bases:

NH4+ + OH-NH3 + H2O

In this case, NH4+ acts as an acid which donates a proton to OH-. OH- acts as a base.


The substance formed when a base accepts a h ion

Conjugate Acid

The substance formed when a base accepts a H+ ion


The substance that remains after an acid has donated a h ion

Conjugate Base

The substance that remains after an acid has donated a H+ ion


Conjugate acid and base
Conjugate Acid and Base

NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

NH4+ + OH-NH3 + H2O

For example, NH4+ is the

conjugate acid of NH3 (1st equation), and NH3 is the conjugate base of NH4+ (2nd equation).


What is pH?

A measurement of the concentration of H3O+ ions (H+ ions)



What is pH?

Kw = [H+][OH-] = 1 x 10-14

pH = -log[H+]

pOH = -log[OH-]




Nmv nmv

Neutralization

acid

base

nMV = nMV


How many milliliters of 0 80 m hcl are needed to neutralize 35 ml of 1 5 m naoh
How many milliliters of 0.80 M HCl are needed to neutralize 35 mL of 1.5 M NaOH?

HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O

66 mL


What is the concentration of a solution of H 35 mL of 1.5 M NaOH?2SO4 if it takes 35 mL to neutralize 55 mL of 1.5 M Mg(OH)2?

H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 MgSO4 + 2 H2O

2.4M


How many milliliters of 1 8 m hcl are needed to neutralize 85 ml of 1 0 m naoh
How many milliliters of 1.8 M HCl are needed to neutralize 85 mL of 1.0 M NaOH?

HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O

47 mL


Interesting fact
Interesting fact… 85 mL of 1.0 M NaOH?

Water can act as an acid or a base!!!


On acids acids are substances that are electron pair receptors

Lewis Theory 85 mL of 1.0 M NaOH?

ON ACIDS…Acids are substances that are electron-pair receptors


On bases bases are substances capable of donating electron pairs

Lewis Theory 85 mL of 1.0 M NaOH?

ON BASES…Bases are substances capable of donating electron-pairs


A substance that can act as either an acid or a base

Amphoteric 85 mL of 1.0 M NaOH?

A substance that can act as either an acid or a base.


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