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ACIDS AND BASES. What is acid?. a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions, H + What is base? a substance that reacts with an acid to form only salt and water What is alkali? Soluble bases that produce OH ¯ ions in water. Chemical properties of acid Sour taste

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ACIDS AND BASES

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Acids and bases

ACIDS ANDBASES


What is acid

What is acid?

  • a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+

    What is base?

  • a substance that reacts with an acid to

    form only salt and water

    What is alkali?

  • Soluble bases that produce OH¯ ions in water


Acids and bases

Chemical properties of acid

  • Sour taste

  • pH less than 7

  • Corrosive

  • Conduct electricity

  • Acid can react with

    a) bases to produce salts and water

    b) metals to produce salts and hydrogen gas

    c) carbonates to produce salts , carbon dioxide gas and water


Chemical properties of base

Chemical properties of base

  • Bitter/smooth/soapy

  • pH more than 7

  • Corrosive

  • Conduct electricity

  • Base can react with

    a)Acid to produce a salt and water

    b)Heated with ammonium salt to produce ammonia gas


Uses of acids in daily life

Uses of acids in daily life

  • Sulphuric acid – paints, detegents, polymers, fertilisers

  • Carbonic acid- make carbonated drinks

  • Ethanoic acid- vinegar

    Uses of base in daily life

  • Sodium hydroxide – soaps, detergents, bleaching agents

  • Magnesium hydroxide – toothpaste

  • Ammonia- fertilisers


Role of water in the formation of hydrogen ions

Role of water in the formation of hydrogen ions

  • In the presence of water, an acid will ionize to form the hydrogen ions, H+

  • So, water is essential for the formation of hydrogen ions that cause acidity


Role of water in the formation of hydroxide ions

Role of water in the formation of hydroxide ions

  • In the presence of water, alkali will dissociate to form hydroxide ions, OH¯

  • Hence, water is essential for the formation of hydroxide ions that cause alkalinity


Ph scale

pH scale


Acids and bases

pH scale

  • A set of numbers used to show the degree of acidity and alkalinity of a solution

  • pH values of less than 7 indicates an acidic solution

  • pH values of more than 7 indicates an alkaline solution

  • pH values of 7 indicates a neutral solution


Ph values

pH values

Higher pH value

  • more alkaline

  • higher concentration of hydroxide ion

    Lower pH value

  • more acidic

  • higher concentration of hydrogen ion

    When acids meets base


Acids and bases

pH values

  • pH is actually a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen, H+ in a solution

  • The higher the concentration of the H+

    ions, the lower the pH value, and more acidic the solution is

  • The higher the concentration of the OH¯ ions, the higher the pH value and the more alkaline solution the solution is.


Acids and bases

Acid

  • Strong acidis an acid that dissociate (ionize ) completely in water to form hydrogen ion,H+ of high concentration

  • Weak acidis an acid that dissociate (ionize ) partially in water to produce hydrogen ions,H+ of low concentration.

  • Mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid are strong acids

  • Weak acids-ethanoic acid, methanoic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid


Alkali

Alkali

  • Strong alkaliis produce when a base dissociates completely in water to produce hydroxide ions, OH- of high concentration

  • Weak alkaliis produced when a base dissociates partially to produce hydroxide ions, OH- of low concentration.

  • Strong alkali- sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide

  • Weak alkali- ammonia solution


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