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Approaches to Rural Electrification in East Africa: Donors, Projects, Rural Energy Agencies & the Private Sector. Berkeley Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab November 2005. Mark Hankins Energy for Sustainable Development AFRICA Nairobi Kenya. Design of WB GEF PV Program

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Approaches to Rural Electrification in East Africa:Donors, Projects, Rural Energy Agencies & the Private Sector

Berkeley Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab

November 2005

Mark Hankins

Energy for Sustainable

Development AFRICA

Nairobi Kenya


  • Support to Energy for Rural Transformation

  • PV training & infrastructure

  • NGO projects

Sudan

  • PV Commercialization

  • Decentralized energy supply

  • NGO projects

Somalia

Ethiopia

  • PV training, infrastructure, finance & study

  • Mini-grid & wind development

  • Various private sector in rural energy

  • NGO projects

  • PV system design

Uganda

Kenya

  • National PV Project

  • NGO Projects

  • Design of Rural Energy Agency

  • PV Training & Infrastructure

  • Pilots for REA

Tanzania

East Africa and the Horn of Africa

20 years work experience


Rural Energy Access is Extremely Limited

Rural Electrification is less than 5% in most sub-Sahara African Countries!!!!!




How Are We Doing?

Connections/Year

Pretty Bad!!!!

RE is going backwards


Why re is so slow in africa
Why RE is so Slow in Africa

  • 25% financing 75%

  • Low capacities to pay

  • Dispersed rural populations

  • Lack of power in grid

  • Lack of investment

  • Corruption, bureaucracy, politics, war

  • Approaches do not match need categories

  • Lack of focus (too much “flavor of the month”)

  • Not enough good people in RE???


3 basic strategies for re
3 Basic Strategies for RE

  • Grid Extension

  • Micro-Mini Isolated Grid

    • Hydro

    • Thermal

    • Co-Gen

    • Wind hybrid

  • Dispersed or Isolated Systems

    • BBS & PV

    • Gen-Set

    • Wind, micro-hydro, hybrids, etc



Non electric energy needs and sources
Non-Electric Energy Needs and Sources

Applications

  • Cooking

  • Heating

  • Air conditioning

  • Pumping

  • Milling

  • Refrigeration

  • Etc

Important Sources

  • Wood, residues

  • Charcoal - major environmental issues

  • LPG - modern cooking fuel which could help overcome cooking fuel shortages

  • Kerosene

  • Biogas

  • Etc.



Commercial non project electrification
Commercial Non-Project Electrification

  • Less than 3% have access to grid electricity but spending power is there

  • Cell phone market illustrates market potential

  • $100’s of millions spent on electricity by rural people (not including kerosene)

    • Small generators

    • Lead acid batteries (Uganda)

      • $10 per month per battery

      • $1-3 per charge

      • ~200-300,000 HH use

      • Charging industry makes $27M/year

    • Dry cells (Uganda)

      • $6 per mo per rural HH

      • 94% of HH use

      • ~460 million dry cells/annum

        @$230M (not possible)


Late 1990 s paradigm switch
Late 1990’s: Paradigm Switch??

  • Post liberalisation of power sector

  • A new paradigm

    • Modern energy as driver for economic development

    • Modern energy supports key social services

    • Access to modern energy by maximum number of people

    • Multi-technology approach

    • Private sector led

  • Replaces “old paradigm”

    • Grid extension

    • “A bulb in each house”


Energy for rural transformation
Energy for Rural Transformation

  • Use modern energy sources to promote productive end-uses such as agro-business, SMEs, and commercial ventures in and near rural areas

  • Increase access to modern energy services in key rural service areas such as health, education, water, communication, etc.

  • Rural Energy Agency/Fund plays facilitating role

    • stimulates and co-finance viable private sector investments in modern rural energy technologies.

    • “technology neutral”. All types of energy projects will be considered

    • RE is private sector-led


Energy for rural transformation uganda
Energy for Rural Transformation Uganda

  • A number of flagship projects for rural electrification

  • These focus on different technologies and dissemination strategies

    • Preparation of Kakira Sugar Factory IPP

    • West Nile Hydro Power Project (World Bank)

    • Bushenyi & Rukungiri

    • Kasiizi Hospital Power Project

    • PV market development

  • Success? Not yet.


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