Approaches to Rural Electrification
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Approaches to Rural Electrification in East Africa: Donors, Projects, Rural Energy Agencies & the Private Sector. Berkeley Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab November 2005. Mark Hankins Energy for Sustainable Development AFRICA Nairobi Kenya. Design of WB GEF PV Program

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Mark hankins energy for sustainable development africa nairobi kenya

Approaches to Rural Electrification in East Africa:Donors, Projects, Rural Energy Agencies & the Private Sector

Berkeley Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab

November 2005

Mark Hankins

Energy for Sustainable

Development AFRICA

Nairobi Kenya


Mark hankins energy for sustainable development africa nairobi kenya

  • Design of WB GEF PV Program

  • Design of Rural Energy Agency

  • PV Commercialization

  • Support to Energy for Rural Transformation

  • PV training & infrastructure

  • NGO projects

Sudan

  • PV Commercialization

  • Decentralized energy supply

  • NGO projects

Somalia

Ethiopia

  • PV training, infrastructure, finance & study

  • Mini-grid & wind development

  • Various private sector in rural energy

  • NGO projects

  • PV system design

Uganda

Kenya

  • National PV Project

  • NGO Projects

  • Design of Rural Energy Agency

  • PV Training & Infrastructure

  • Pilots for REA

Tanzania

East Africa and the Horn of Africa

20 years work experience


Mark hankins energy for sustainable development africa nairobi kenya

Rural Energy Access is Extremely Limited

Rural Electrification is less than 5% in most sub-Sahara African Countries!!!!!


Poverty backdrop

Poverty Backdrop


Mark hankins energy for sustainable development africa nairobi kenya

Rural Electricity in East Africa


Mark hankins energy for sustainable development africa nairobi kenya

How Are We Doing?

Connections/Year

Pretty Bad!!!!

RE is going backwards


Why re is so slow in africa

Why RE is so Slow in Africa

  • 25% financing 75%

  • Low capacities to pay

  • Dispersed rural populations

  • Lack of power in grid

  • Lack of investment

  • Corruption, bureaucracy, politics, war

  • Approaches do not match need categories

  • Lack of focus (too much “flavor of the month”)

  • Not enough good people in RE???


3 basic strategies for re

3 Basic Strategies for RE

  • Grid Extension

  • Micro-Mini Isolated Grid

    • Hydro

    • Thermal

    • Co-Gen

    • Wind hybrid

  • Dispersed or Isolated Systems

    • BBS & PV

    • Gen-Set

    • Wind, micro-hydro, hybrids, etc


Electrification strategies demand categories

Electrification Strategies & Demand Categories


Non electric energy needs and sources

Non-Electric Energy Needs and Sources

Applications

  • Cooking

  • Heating

  • Air conditioning

  • Pumping

  • Milling

  • Refrigeration

  • Etc

Important Sources

  • Wood, residues

  • Charcoal - major environmental issues

  • LPG - modern cooking fuel which could help overcome cooking fuel shortages

  • Kerosene

  • Biogas

  • Etc.


Mark hankins energy for sustainable development africa nairobi kenya

US$/kWh


Commercial non project electrification

Commercial Non-Project Electrification

  • Less than 3% have access to grid electricity but spending power is there

  • Cell phone market illustrates market potential

  • $100’s of millions spent on electricity by rural people (not including kerosene)

    • Small generators

    • Lead acid batteries (Uganda)

      • $10 per month per battery

      • $1-3 per charge

      • ~200-300,000 HH use

      • Charging industry makes $27M/year

    • Dry cells (Uganda)

      • $6 per mo per rural HH

      • 94% of HH use

      • ~460 million dry cells/annum

        @$230M (not possible)


Late 1990 s paradigm switch

Late 1990’s: Paradigm Switch??

  • Post liberalisation of power sector

  • A new paradigm

    • Modern energy as driver for economic development

    • Modern energy supports key social services

    • Access to modern energy by maximum number of people

    • Multi-technology approach

    • Private sector led

  • Replaces “old paradigm”

    • Grid extension

    • “A bulb in each house”


Energy for rural transformation

Energy for Rural Transformation

  • Use modern energy sources to promote productive end-uses such as agro-business, SMEs, and commercial ventures in and near rural areas

  • Increase access to modern energy services in key rural service areas such as health, education, water, communication, etc.

  • Rural Energy Agency/Fund plays facilitating role

    • stimulates and co-finance viable private sector investments in modern rural energy technologies.

    • “technology neutral”. All types of energy projects will be considered

    • RE is private sector-led


Energy for rural transformation uganda

Energy for Rural Transformation Uganda

  • A number of flagship projects for rural electrification

  • These focus on different technologies and dissemination strategies

    • Preparation of Kakira Sugar Factory IPP

    • West Nile Hydro Power Project (World Bank)

    • Bushenyi & Rukungiri

    • Kasiizi Hospital Power Project

    • PV market development

  • Success? Not yet.


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