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Chapter 2 . Creation of Oceans. Big Bang 13 bya. Supporting Evidence for the Big Bang Edwin Hubble discovered spreading of galaxies. Cosmic background radiation (the glow left over from the explosion itself) discovered in 1964 . . Origin of a Galaxy. Andromeda Galaxy.

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slide1

Chapter 2

Creation of Oceans

slide2

Big Bang 13 bya

  • Supporting Evidence for the Big Bang
  • Edwin Hubble discovered spreading of galaxies.
  • Cosmic background radiation (the glow left over from the explosion itself) discovered in 1964.
slide3

Origin of a Galaxy

Andromeda Galaxy

  • Huge rotating aggregation of stars, dust, gas and other debris held together by gravity.
origin of the solar system
Origin of the Solar System
  • Rotating cloud of gas from which sun and planets formed
  • Initiated by “supernova” = exploding star
slide5

Nuclear Fusion: The joining of atoms under tremendous temperatures and pressures to create atoms of a heavier element. In the Sun, four hydrogen atoms are fused to create each helium atom. Two of the hydrogen\'s protons become neutrons in the process

slide6

Moderate Size Stars (Our Sun): C & O

Large Stars (more, H & He): Fe

Supernova: Heavier Elements Formed

slide7

Condensation Theory

A nebula (a large, diffuse gas cloud of gas and dust) contracts under gravity. As it contracts, the nebula heats, flattens, and spins faster, becoming a spinning disk of dust and gas.

Star will be born in center.

Planets will form in disk.

Warm temperatures allow only metal/rock “seeds” to condense in the inner solar system.

Cold temperatures allow “seeds” to contain abundant ice in outer solar system.

Hydrogen and helium remain gaseous, but other materials can condense into solid “seeds” for building planets.

The seeds of gas giant planets grow large enough to attract hydrogen and helium gas, making them into giant, mostly gaseous planets; moons form in disks of dust and gas that surround the planets.

Terrestrial planets are built from metal and rock.

Solid “seeds” collide and stick together. Larger ones attract others with their gravity, growing bigger still.

Terrestrial planets remain in inner solar system.

Gas giant planets remain in outer solar system.

“Leftovers” from the formation process become asteroids (metal/rock) and comets (mostly ice).

Not to scale

slide8

Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere accumulated in layers sorted by density

The planet grew by the aggregation of particles. Meteors and asteroids bombarded the surface, heating the new planet and adding to its growing mass. At the time, Earth was composed of a homogeneous mixture of materials.

Earth lost volume because of gravitational compression. High temperatures in the interior turned the inner Earth into a semisolid mass; dense iron (red drops) fell toward the center to form the core, while less dense silicates move outward. Friction generated by this movement heated Earth even more.

The result of density stratification:

an inner and

outer core,

a mantle,

and the crust.

sources of water
Sources of Water
  • Mantle rocks
    • Evidence from meteorites
    • Release through volcanic activity
  • Outer space
    • Evidence from Dynamics Explorer
slide10

100

Methane, ammonia

75

Atmosphere unknown

Concentration of Atmospheric Gases (%)

Nitrogen

50

Water

25

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

0

1

3

4.5

4

2

Time (billions of years ago)

Fig. 2-11, p. 49

The evolution of our atmosphere

initial rise of O2 2.7 b. y. ago – but conclusive evidence is from 2.3 b. y. ago

Early atmosphere quite different from today’s

slide11

Billions of years ago

Billions of years ago

Big bang

13

Earth forms

4.6

Millions of years ago

Ocean forms

4.2

11

First galaxies form

First animals arise

3.8

800

Oldest dated rocks

3.6

First evidence of life

Past

Solar nebula begins

to form

Millions of years ago 66

First fishes appear

510

5.5

End of dinosaurs

Oxygen revolution begins

2

Earth forms

4.6

50

First marine mammals

Pangaea breaks apart

210

Ocean and atmosphere reach steady state (as today)

0.8

End of dinosaurs

Humans appear

0

3

66

Today

Today

Today

Today

Today

Sun\'s output too low for liquid-water ocean

Future

3.5

The sun swells, planets destroyed

5

Billions of years

in the future

Fig. 2-15, p. 51

age and time
Age and Time

1 billion = 1,000,000,000 or 109

Earth is 4.6 * 109 years old

Oceans are 4.2 * 109 years old

Oldest rocks date from 3.8 * 109 years ago

First evidence of life dates from 3.6 * 109 years ago

1 million = 1,000,000 or 106

Ocean and atmosphere reach the state we know today 800 * 106 years ago

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