Basic Concepts. William James (1890) I – self as knower, experiencer, present tense, story teller Vs. Me – self as known, experienced, past tense, story. Me – Self Concept. Components of Me: Physical – awareness of appearance Social – awareness of others’ perceptions
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I – self as knower, experiencer, present tense, story teller
Me – self as known, experienced, past tense, story
Components of Me:
Physical – awareness of appearance
Social – awareness of others’ perceptions
Spiritual – awareness of qualities, attributes
Personality and the Self
Basic Issues and Processes
Hospitalized Hospitalized Non-
Depressed Non-depressed Depressed
Depressed .41 .18 .08
Neutral .10 .36 .43
Cause or effect?
Depressed biased or realistic?
Different from self-concept?
Evaluation of attributes multiplied by their importance.
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
Mean = 29.7; Quartiles = 27/35
Risky behaviors (drugs, etc.)?
Subjective Well Being (Happiness)
Strong negative correlation
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Median = 7. Mild: 15-20; Moderate: 21-32
SE – BDI correlation: r = -.5
Why SE – Depression relationship?
Self esteem as buffer
Adaptability of positive illusions (Taylor & Brown)
self-appraisals match the appraisals of others
fewer self-serving attributions for success or failures
own - guilt
others - shame
own - disappointment
others - lack of pride
Imaging (Zhu et al.): MPFC activated for judgments of self/mother for Chinese
Fundamental Attribution Error – Independent self focus on dispositions
Locus of Control – Independent self and internal locus of control
Everything we do carries identity implications (can be used in impression formation)
People take implications into account in order to convey a particular image