Basic concepts
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Basic Concepts. William James (1890) I – self as knower, experiencer, present tense, story teller Vs. Me – self as known, experienced, past tense, story. Me – Self Concept. Components of Me: Physical – awareness of appearance Social – awareness of others’ perceptions

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Basic concepts

Basic Concepts

  • William James (1890)

    I – self as knower, experiencer, present tense, story teller

    Vs.

    Me – self as known, experienced, past tense, story


Me self concept

Me – Self Concept

Components of Me:

Physical – awareness of appearance

Social – awareness of others’ perceptions

Spiritual – awareness of qualities, attributes


Elephant self awareness

Elephant self awareness


Self schema

Self-schema

  • Organized set of constructs pertaining to ones self

    • Research emphasis is on processing information

Republicans

masculine

Jogs

Fred

Athletic

No quiche

Tennis

beer

Pizza


Personality and the self

Personality and the Self

Basic Issues and Processes


Self schema1

Self schema

  • Effects

    • Perceptions of others

      • Use central traits in perceiving others

    • Self memory

      • Recall schema-consistent behaviors

    • Depression

      • Enhanced memory negative self-relevant information


Self schema and depression

Self-schema and Depression

  • Derry & Kuiper –

  • Memory for depressed/neutral content

    Hospitalized Hospitalized Non-

    Depressed Non-depressed Depressed

    Depressed .41 .18 .08

    Neutral .10 .36 .43

    Cause or effect?

    Depressed biased or realistic?


Self esteem

Self-Esteem

Different from self-concept?

Evaluation of attributes multiplied by their importance.

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Mean = 29.7; Quartiles = 27/35


Self esteem issues

Self Esteem Issues

  • Stable or Unstable?

    • Individual Differences – Narcissism

      • Implicit – Explicit self esteem divergence

    • Self complexity – More facets – more stable

      • high self-complexity can be a buffer for the effects of stress (stress-illness correlation smaller for high self-complexity)


Self esteem issues1

Self Esteem Issues

  • Does high self esteem have positive benefits?

    • California self esteem funding

      Academic?


High self esteem

High self esteem

Crime?

Risky behaviors (drugs, etc.)?


High self esteem1

High self esteem

Interpersonal relations?

Job performance?


High self esteem2

High Self esteem

Subjective Well Being (Happiness)

Depression

Strong negative correlation

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

Median = 7. Mild: 15-20; Moderate: 21-32

SE – BDI correlation: r = -.5


Self esteem and depression

Self Esteem and Depression

Why SE – Depression relationship?

Self esteem as buffer

Adaptability of positive illusions (Taylor & Brown)

self-appraisals match the appraisals of others

fewer self-serving attributions for success or failures


Self esteem and depression1

Self-Esteem and Depression

  • Self-discrepancy theory (Higgins); relationship due to real-ideal discrepancy

  • Real Self

  • Ideal Self – who we would like to be (hopes, wishes, dreams)

  • Ought self – who we should be (duty, responsibility, obligation)


S elf discrepancy theory

Self-discrepancy theory

  • failure to live up to:

own - guilt

oughts

anxiety

others - shame

own - disappointment

depression

ideals

others - lack of pride


Self and culture

Self and Culture

  • Major Cultural Dimension (transmitted):

  • Individualism – Individuals’ goals have priority

  • Vs.

  • Collectivism – Groups’ goals have priority


Self and culture1

Self and Culture

  • Individualism = Independent self

  • Collectivism = interdependent self

Mother

Friend

Friend

Self

Mother

Self

Friend

Friend


Self and culture2

Self and Culture

  • Cultural Differences in Self Reflected in Language:

    • Independent/individualist:

      • 1st person singular pronoun

      • Non pro-drop (pronouns usually required)

      • Family name last

    • Interdependent/collectivist:

      • Pronouns marked for relationship

      • Pro-drop (pronouns optional)

      • Family name first


Self and culture3

Self and Culture

  • Selected Manifestations of Cultural Differences in Self:

    Imaging (Zhu et al.): MPFC activated for judgments of self/mother for Chinese

    Fundamental Attribution Error – Independent self focus on dispositions

    Locus of Control – Independent self and internal locus of control


Development of self me

Development of Self (Me)

  • How and When does Self-Concept Develop?

    • Awareness of Physical Self at 18-24 mos.

  • Development as Social Process (Mead)

    • Reciprocal Role-Taking

      • Imagine how perceived by others (social me)

        • Some feedback but misinterpretations possible

      • Generalized Other: Me = sense of how perceived by people in general

    • Self concept dependent on others


Development of self me1

Development of Self (Me)

  • Evidence for Self as Social Construct

    • Humans/chimps raised in isolation

    • Myamoto & Dornbush

      • Collect ratings of:

        • Beliefs about how perceived by specific others (e.g. other frat. members)

        • Beliefs about how perceived by people in general

        • How one is actually perceived by others (other frat. members)

        • Self ratings


Development of self me2

Development of Self (Me)

  • Evidence for Self as Social Construct

    • Mere presence (Morse & Gergen):

    • Male Ps apply for job

    • Complete application forms including self esteem measure

    • Another job applicant (confederate) enters

    • Mr. Clean:

      • self esteem drops

        Mr. Dirty:

      • self esteem increases

    • Social comparison and Instability


Development of self

Development of Self

  • Entirely Dependent on Others?

  • Strategies for Lessening Influence of Others:

    • Choose with whom to interact

      • Prefer self-consistent or positive feedback?

  • Choose with whom to compare

    • Downward social comparison

  • Behavioral Confirmation

    • Swan study:

      • Dominant and submissive Ps given contradictory feedback

      • Act to confirm self view


  • Self presentation

    Self Presentation

    • Ervin Goffman (self-presentation/impression management)

    • Act so as to convey desired image (Behavioral Confirmation)

    • Personality = performance (no internal traits)

      • “All the worlds a stage,

      • And all the men and women merely players”

    • Self influenced by others’ perceptions; but actively strive to influence others’ perceptions


    Goffman s theory of self presentation

    Goffman’s Theory of Self Presentation

    Everything we do carries identity implications (can be used in impression formation)

    • Choices regarding personal appearance, room appearance, consumer products, etc.

      • Gosling and Music choices:

        • Blues, jazz, classical and folk: "reflective and complex"

        • Heavy metal and alternative: "intense and rebellious“

        • rap/hip-hop, soul/funk: "energetic and rhythmic”

    • Cannot not communicate

    • Social media – Extreme self-presentation?

      • Image presented on Facebook real or ideal?


    Goffman s theory of self presentation1

    Goffman’s Theory of Self Presentation

    People take implications into account in order to convey a particular image

    • Habitual/automatic and Conscious/deliberate

    • Always self presenting? Exceptions?

    • Positive images only?

      • Braginsky, Braginsky, & Ring

        • Schizophrenia and self-presentation

          • Interview for release or backward


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