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Tyre Recycling in the European Union. Dr. Valerie L. Shulman Secretary General, ETRA. ETRA : The European Tyre Recycling Association. Founded in 1994, with 19 members in 5 EU States ETRA has ±250 members in 43 countries, including each EU State;

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Tyre recycling in the european union

Tyre Recycling in the European Union

Dr. Valerie L. Shulman

Secretary General, ETRA

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ETRA : The European Tyre Recycling Association

  • Founded in 1994, with 19 members in 5 EU States

  • ETRA has ±250 members in 43 countries, including each EU State;

  • The mission : to develop tyre recycling as an environmentally and commercially sustainable European industry

  • Objectives: to develop and advance policies that support the industry;

    to expand and develop markets;

    to development and implement professional standards;

    to prepare and promote guidelines for materials, products,

    applications;

    to provide communication links

  • Membership is open to the public and private sectors

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Post consumer tyres
Post-consumer tyres

  • ~ 3,250,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from cars and trucks in the 27 EU States - and defined as waste

  • It is estimated that an additional ~60,000 to 70,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from agricultural and other off-road vehicles in the 27 EU States - but not defined as waste

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The raw materials
The raw materials

Rubber compounds - throughout the tyre : treads, sidewalls, etc.

Plies andbelts : layers of brass coated steel with rubber

Bead wire : Cords of high tensile steel that give form to the tyre

Casing : Made of metal, rayon, nylon. Polyester cords

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Composition by weight of tyres
Composition by weight of tyres

The rubber compounds, metals and textiles are recovered through material recycling

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Recycling makes sense
Recycling makes sense

  • It requires 121,000BTUs to produce 1 kg of new rubber materials

  • It requires only 2,200BTUs to produce 1 kg of clean granulate or powder.

    Put another way,the Co2 equivalent for 1kg of rubber is :

    4,351 for Natural rubber

    3,409 for SBR

    0,097 for recycled rubber

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Considering energy use
Considering energy use

The production of 1 tonne of rubber requires the following :

  • Natural rubber requires the same amount of energy as driving from Brussels to Singapore (about 10,560km)

  • Synthetic rubber (SBR) requires the equivalent of driving from Rome to Sidney Australia (15,000km)

  • Recycled rubber is a much shorter trip - it uses the equivalent of a 400 km ride from Paris (France) to Geneva (Switzerland)

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Means of tyre valorisation
Means of tyre valorisation

  • Re-use and or export

  • Retreading

  • Material recycling including :

    • Civil engineering and construction applications

    • Environmental rehabilitation projects

    • Consumer and industrial products

  • Energy recovery for :

    • Co-incineration

    • Cement kilns

      Each form of valorisation requires a consistent flow of input

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    The attainment level 2005 6
    The attainment level : 2005-6

    In 2005-6, ±2 669 219 tonnes of post-consumer tyres were treated in an

    environmentally sound manner within the 25 States of the EU.

    ± 222 975 tonnes : export (± 7%)

    ± 333 250 tonnes : retreading (± 10,5%)

    ±1 012 920 tonnes :material recycling (± 31,8%)

    ±1 100 075 tonnes : energy recovery (±34,5%)

    Together, ±83,8% of post-consumer tyres were diverted from landfills.

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    Elements of the recycling process
    Elements of the recycling process

    • Collecting (manual)

    • Sorting

    • Pre-treating

      • Debeading

      • Cutting

  • Processing (mechanical)

    • Shredding

    • Granulating

      • Sieving

      • Packaging

      • Storing

      • Delivering

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    The start of tyre recycling collecting
    The start of tyre recycling : Collecting

    • Knowing where the tyres are

      • At small individual sites :

        • Garages, tyre shops, small retailers, vehicle sales

      • At large communal depots

        • Tyre distributors

        • Fleet managers

        • Municipal depots

        • Vehicle dismantlers

    • Knowing how to move the tyres

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    Basic collection information

    Category

    Off road/agricultural tyres

    Truck tyres

    Bus tyres

    Utility tyres

    Passenger car tyres

    Winter tyres

    Approx. Wt./ tyre

    170 kg

    56 kg

    54 kg

    8 kg

    7 kg

    8kg

    Basic collection information

    Tyres p/tonne

    5.88

    17.86

    18.52

    125

    142.60

    125

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    EU Collection systems

    Sweden

    Finland

    Producer responsibility

    Free market system

    Norway

    Adaptation

    Estonia

    In transition

    Latvia

    Denmark

    Lithuania

    Ireland

    Poland

    UK

    Holland

    Germany

    Belgium

    Czech Republic

    Lux

    Slovakia

    France

    Austria

    Hungary

    Romania

    Slovenia

    Italy

    Bulgaria

    Portugal

    Spain

    Greece

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    Cyprus

    Malta


    Formula for tyre collection
    Formula for tyre Collection

    • To move 1 tonne of tyres costs approximately 2€ per km

    • Passenger car tyres : 6 - 12 tonnes per delivery

      15 tonnes in a walking floor truck

    • Truck tyres : approximately 14 - 15 tonnes per delivery

      17 - 18 tonnes in a walking floor truck

    • Off-road tyres : 15 tonnes per delivery

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    Stacked tyres
    Stacked tyres

    Whole tyres are often stacked in a basketweave to save space - particularly when the tyres will be retreaded

    Tyres for recycling are often transported in bulk - as whole, or as tyre cuts

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    The next steps
    The next steps

    1. Sorting : Manual process

    According to category : truck, passenger car, other

    Road-worthy : undamaged with minimum 1.66mm tread

    Retreadable : repairable casing in good condition

    Non-retreadable : raw material for recycling

    Many of these tyres are exported to other countries that have

    less restrictive road-use standards

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    Preparation for recycling

    2. Pre-treatment : Manual processes

    Removal of debris

    Rinsing - remove dirt, etc.

    Cutting in halves/quarters

    Debeading

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    Truck tyre debeading
    Truck tyre debeading

    • Truck tyres are debeaded

    • The steel is removed

    • A 60 second spurt at 150 kW/h/t is used

    • Clean tyre bead steel can substitute virgin material - dependent upon use

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    Tyre processing
    Tyre processing

    • Shredding

    • Chipping

    • Granulating

    • Fine granulating

    • Powders

    • Material upgrading

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    Shred and chips
    Shred and chips

    • Shredders can be mobile or fixed

    • Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension.

    • Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders

    • Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders

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    Cost use triangle
    Cost-use-triangle

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    The range of materials outputs
    The range of materials : outputs

    • Since 1995, the range of post-consumer tyre materials produced and used has expanded - principally at the extremes

    • Larger materials, i.e., whole treated and untreated tyres, bales, shred, chips are increasingly selected by civil engineers

    • Smaller materials, i.e., granulate, powders, fine powders and specialised products (reclaim, devulcanisates, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.) are being selected by manufacturers of consumer and technical products

    • Recycling residues are increasingly used for specific innovative applications

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    Post consumer tyre materials
    Post-consumer tyre materials

    The changing balance of material production and use

    Granulate

    54%

    Powders

    10%

    Whole tyres

    12%

    Specialty

    Misc.

    Shred/chips

    15%

    7%

    2%

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    Whole tyres

    • Whole tyres can be recycled without physical or chemical transformation

    • Principal methods of treatment include cutting into halves or quarters,

    • untreated or, treated by removing the beads or sidewalls, or by compression

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    Characteristics of whole tyres
    Characteristics of whole tyres

    • Characteristics

    • Lightweight,

    • Low compacted density,

    • High void ratio,

    • Good compressibility,

    • Water permeability,

    • Thermal insulation

    • Non-biodegradable

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    Examples of whole tyre uses

    Slope stabilisation

    Construction bale

    Erosion control

    Coastal and fluvial protection

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    Shred and chips1
    Shred and Chips

    • Shred and chips are the result of mechanical processes by which tyres are fragmented into irregular pieces

    • Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension.

    • Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders

    • Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders

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    Characteristics of shred and chips
    Characteristics of shred and chips

    • Characteristics

    • Lightweight,

    • Low compacted density,

    • High void ratio,

    • Good compressibility,

    • Water permeability 10-1 to

    • 10-3 m/s

    • Thermal insulation

    • Low earth pressure

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    Examples of shred and chips

    Compacted shred

    Landfill cell

    (geotextile)

    Drainage systems

    Loose shred

    Building insulation

    Loose unbound chips :

    Compacted unbound chips

    Bound chips

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    Granulate
    Granulate

    • Granulate is the result of processing rubber to reduce it in size into finely dispersed particles from ±1mm to ±10mm

    • There are two principal methods of production : ambient and cryogenic

    • Ambient size reduction is the most common, particularly for larger truck tyres.

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    Characteristics of granulate
    Characteristics of granulate

    Characteristics

    Variations are based upon

    the treatment technology

    Ambient : irregular shape; some thermal degradation due to treatment; reduced cross-linking

    Cryogenic : regular shape and particle size; smooth, glossy surface; no surface decomposition or thermal stress

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    Examples of granulate uses

    Artificial turf

    Road furniture

    Road furniture

    Running tracks

    Artificial turf

    Insulation

    Indoor or outdoor

    tiles/pavers

    Children’s play grounds

    Sports arenas

    Sports stadia

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    Powders and fine powders
    Powders and fine powders

    • Fine granulate is the result of ambient or cryogenic process-ing to obtain finely dispersed particles of less than ±2mm.

    • Powders and fine powders are the result of processing and post-treating the material to obtain finely dispersed particles of ±500µm - <1.mm

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    Characteristics of powders
    Characteristics of powders

    Characteristics

    Powders are processed to modify one or more charac-teristic to restore some properties of virgin rubber.

    Powders include reclaim, surface modified or re-activated material, elasto- meric alloys, among others.

    They are most often used as ingredients in compounds that are mixed or blended with virgin material

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    We ll continue to work on it
    We’ll continue to work on it

    Thank you for your attention

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    The 15th annual european conference
    The 15th AnnualEuropeanConference

    on tyre recycling

    Towards a Recycling society :

    the challenge

    2 - 5 April 2008 The Crowne Plaza Europa, Brussels

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