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Introduction to Proposal Arguments. Scott Hale English 1213. Return to the Beginning…. How it all starts with Language… Definitions are the first step in Knowledge Definitions give way to Evaluations Evaluations give way to Ethical determinations Ethics give way to Proposals.

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Introduction to Proposal Arguments

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Introduction to proposal arguments
Introduction to Proposal Arguments

Scott Hale

English 1213


Return to the beginning
Return to the Beginning…

  • How it all starts with Language…

  • Definitions are the first step in Knowledge

  • Definitions give way to Evaluations

  • Evaluations give way to Ethical determinations

  • Ethics give way to Proposals...


Do the right thing
Do the Right Thing…

  • Proposals reflect our Ethics

  • Suggest what we should or shouldn’t do

  • Call for the audience to do something--to take action

  • Always couched in proposal terms...


Kinds of proposal arguments
Kinds of Proposal Arguments

  • Practical

  • Policy


Practical proposals
Practical Proposals

  • Limited in scope/breadth

  • Local as opposed to global

    • Scott’s English 1213 class should be more difficult…


Policy proposals
Policy Proposals

  • Greater scope/breadth

  • Global as opposed to local

    • All English 1213 classes at OU should be more difficult


Principles of proposal arguments
Principles of Proposal Arguments

  • All Proposal Arguments should do 3 things

    • Identify a Problem

    • Propose a Solution

    • Justify that Proposed Solution


Identifying the problem
Identifying the Problem

  • Convince the audience the problem exists

  • Place problem in larger social context to show how everyone is affected

  • Presence=Pathos


Proposing your solution
Proposing your Solution

  • How, What, Where, When, Why, and Who…

  • Going to NY…

  • Go East

  • Take I-35 to I-40…

  • Details, Details, Details…


Justifying your solution
Justifying Your Solution

  • Compare/Contrast with Other Solutions

  • Other Solutions that Address the Same Problem…

    • My solution to solve hunger is better than your solution to curb military spending


Toulmin schema
Toulmin Schema

  • C: Corporal Punishment should be used in public schools

  • R: b/c it will improve student discipline

  • G: Corporal Punishment will improve student discipline

    • EV: Step by Step Plan and Evidence

  • W: Anything that will improve student discipline is something that should be used in public schools

  • B: Evidence that student discipline is a problem


Three kinds of evidence
Three Kinds of Evidence

  • Evidence that the problem exists

  • Evidence that your solution will fix it

  • Evidence that other solutions won’t fix it as well


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