Introduction to arguments
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Introduction to Arguments. Three Styles of Argument. Classical (Six-Part Oration) Typically a polarized argument Rogerian A qualified argument—counterargument is key Toulmin Claim, Warrant, Reason and Evidence. Classical Oration– Six-Part Oration Review.

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Three styles of argument
Three Styles of Argument

  • Classical (Six-Part Oration)

    • Typically a polarized argument

  • Rogerian

    • A qualified argument—counterargument is key

  • Toulmin

    • Claim, Warrant, Reason and Evidence

Classical oration six part oration review
Classical Oration– Six-Part Oration Review

  • Exordium: Win the attention/goodwill of audience while introducing a subject or problem.

  • Narration: Presents facts of the case, explaining context

  • Partition: Divides up the subject, explaining what the claim is, what the key issues are, and in what order the subject will be treated

  • Confirmation: Offers support for the claim

  • Refutation: Acknowledges and refuses opposing claims/evidence

  • Conclusion: Summarizes the claim and moves the audience to action

Modified six part oration
Modified Six-Part Oration

  • Introduction

    • Gains attention

    • Establishes credibility.

    • Establishes common ground with audience.

    • States claim

  • Background

    • Presents necessary information

  • Lines of Argument

    • Presents good reasons—logical and emotional appeals—to support claim

Modified six part oration1
Modified Six-Part Oration

  • Alternative Arguments

    • Examines view of opposing arguments

    • Notes advantages and disadvantages of these

    • Explains why your view is stronger

  • Conclusion

    • Summarizes argument

    • Elaborates on implications of your claim

    • Makes clear what you want the audience to think or do

    • Reinforces your credibility and could offer an emotional appeal

Rogerian arguments
Rogerian Arguments

  • Based on the idea that people should not respond to one another until they can fully, fairly, and even sympathetically state the other person’s position

    • Qualified Arguments

  • Rhetors concede that alternatives to their claim exist

    • Some alternatives might even be reasonable in certain circumstances

  • Meant to promote compromise

Rogerian arguments structure
Rogerian Arguments – Structure

  • Introduction

    • Describe the issue, problem, or conflict

      • Shows that the rhetor understands and respects any alternative positions

  • Contexts

    • Discuss contexts, situations in which the alternative views might be valid

  • Writer’s Position

    • States the rhetor’s position and the circumstances in which it is valid

  • Benefits to opponent

    • Explains to opponents how they would benefit from adopting the rhetor’s position

Toulmin argument
Toulmin Argument

  • Acknowledge the complications of life in arguments

    • Situations in which the rhetor says sometimes, often, presumably, unless, and almost

  • Requires the readers to test their ideas and analyze arguments

Toulminian arguments

Toulminian Arguments

Claim + Reason

Grounds = evidence


Claim + Reason

Warrant = underlying assumption




  • All enthymemes have underlying assumptions

  • “We should slash the deficit because it’s too big.”

    • WARRANT: Having a large deficit is bad for the nation.

  • “Everyone should recycle because it will save the planet.”

    • WARRANT: The planet is worth saving.



  • There can be MULTIPLE warrants in an enthymeme

  • “Even hate groups should be allowed to hold rallies in public places.”

    • WARRANT: Freedom of speech applies to everyone.

    • WARRANT: Freedom of speech is vital to the continued existence of our nation.


More caution

  • If warrants aren’t controversial, there is likely no need to state or explain them.

    • Example: The mushroom is poisonous, so don’t eat it!

      • WARRANT: Eating poisonous things is dangerous.

  • Controversial warrants need to be justified a bit more, and can lead to faulty arguments.

    • Example: Grades in high school should be abolished because I don’t like them.

      • WARRANT: What I don’t like should be abolished.

A toulminian argument

Claim + Reason





BACKING= justification for the warrant

  • WARRANT: Freedom of speech is good.

    • Backing:

      • Allows minority voices to be heard

      • Ensures no one is being oppressed

      • Fosters informed citizenry

Two things missing here

  • Qualifiers

    • Probably, in my opinion, usually, often, etc.

    • “That movie will probably be good because the director has made lots of other good movies.”

    • “While schools should be able to teach sex edbecause it’s vital for teen safety, instructors should also take into account the culture and religious beliefs of their students.”

  • Concessions/Rebuttals

    • Exceptions to the claim

    • “That movie will probably be good because the director has made lots of other good movies. Except his last one. That stunk.”

Two Things Missing Here