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Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Calibration Presentation. A step-by-step guide to calibrating a custom PIV system using PIVlab 1.2. Contents. Equipment Configuration Physical Procedure PIVlab 1.2 Analysis Procedure Results Sources of Error Conclusions Future Directions. Equipment.

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particle image velocimetry piv calibration presentation

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Calibration Presentation

A step-by-step guide to calibrating a custom PIV system using PIVlab 1.2.

  • Equipment
  • Configuration
  • Physical Procedure
  • PIVlab 1.2 Analysis Procedure
  • Results
  • Sources of Error
  • Conclusions
  • Future Directions
  • Harvard Syringe Pump Model 33
  • Two, plastic 60ml syringes with inside diameter (ID)of of 26mm
  • 2m of clear rubber hose with an ID of 4.5mm
  • T-valve
  • Clear, glass or plastic tubing with of ID of 6.25mm and outside diameter (OD) of 7.7mm
  • Buret Clamp
  • Silicone
  • PIV system
syringe pump procedure
Syringe Pump Procedure
  • 1. Accurately mark the glass tube at 32.6mm (calculated with the ID using πr²h) above the opening. This is 1ml in the glass tube.
  • 2. Silicone all tubing joints, as not to allow any air to enter or exit the tube system.
  • 3. After silicone is cured, fill the PIV tank with water to desired level.
  • 4. Insert the glass tube into the water, slightly under the water’s surface.
  • 5. Using a level, plumb the glass tube to make it vertical.
syringe pump procedure cont
Syringe Pump Procedure cont.
  • 6. Program the diameter of the syringes and set pump to Continuous run
  • 7. Program the syringe pump to 50ml/hr., which calculates to 0.026m/s (which is the maximum pumping rate for these syringes)
  • 8. Turn on PIV system
  • 9. Press “Run/Stop” on syringe pump
  • 10. Record vortex
  • 11. After experimentation, film a known distance for a calibration image
Image pre-processing, enable contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLACHE) and highpass filtering (highpass)
  • CLACHE enhances contrast in the image
  • Highpass sharpens the image and removes background signals

PIV settings: set interrogation area ([px] in both dimensions) to 24 and Step ([px] spacing between the centers of interrogation area) in both dimensions to 12

post processing set standard deviation stdev filter threshhold n stdev to 8 apply to all frames
Post processing: set standard deviation (stdev) filter threshhold [n*stdev] to 8. Apply to all frames
a few velocity calculation options
A few velocity calculation options…

-0- frame (represented as -0-) is the moment the water is completely expelled from the tube into the aquarium

Velocity is calculated by programming the flow rate (i.e. .833ml/s)*distance fluid traveled (i.e. 0.0326m) = 0.026m/s² . Record the maximum velocity/frame

  • 1. A running average: take 20 slides after -0- and average the velocity calculations (smoothing data)
  • 2. Only look at 1 frame and average the same frame for each run
extractions polyline analysis
Extractions: polyline analysis
  • A polyline is a line segment that calculates each individual vector’s velocity. This is represented in a graph with the Y-axis as velocity and the X-axis as the distance on the line. The polyline can be drawn through the regions of highest velocity denoted by the color bar.
  • Set parameter to Velocity magnitude and Type to Polyline
  • Draw the line across the region with the highest velocity determined by the color-bar
  • Plot data
  • Record the velocity for that frame
  • Repeat this process to take a running average
torus volume
Torus volume
  • Volume of a torus is 2π²(D/2)r².
  • Mass is calculated using the density of H2O at room temp.
  • Smooth the data to 100%.

Torus picture courtesy of:


To insure accurate measurement of radius r, take 6 measurements from the same side of the torus half from the core to the outside wall and average them: radius 1

possible sources of error
Possible Sources of Error
  • The Harvard Apparatus Twin Syringe Pump Model 33 has an accuracy within ±0.35% and reproducibility within ±0.1%
  • The clear rubber hose may be expanding and contracting due to thermal fluctuations
  • Convection currents with the experimental system
  • All measurements using this 2D PIV system are not statistically different from the expected values suggested by the syringe pump apparatus
  • Although the Reynolds number (Re) for the syringe pump experiment is 162 and 100 for 0.026m/s and 0.016m/s, respectively, and the Re estimate for aquatic leaping in Rana catesbeiana is 16100,this method can be used to calculate force, work, and power of amphibian propulsion in an aquatic medium
future directions
Future Directions
  • To use a static glass tube from the syringes to keep the water pressure constant
  • To use larger syringes with a faster syringe pump will allow vortices to be produced at higher Re ranges, possibly within the frog aquatic leap velocities
  • To produce a wider range of flow velocities
  • Conduct experiment in a more temperature stable area


Kiisa Nishikawa, Physiology, NAU

Stan Lindtsted, Physiology, NAU

Alice Gibb, Physiology, NAU

Ted Uyeno, Biomechanics, VSU

Brent Nelson, Mechanical Engineering, NAU

David Lee, Biomechanics, UNLV




Sigma Xi GIAR Grant G20111015158992


Mr. Pippiens

  • Undergraduate Students
  • Duane Barbano
  • Erik Dillingham
  • Antonia Tallante
  • Nicholas Gengler
  • Russell Nelson
  • Maxwell Wheeler
  • Graduate Students
  • Krysta Powers, M.S. student
  • Sang Hoon Yeo, Ph.D. student
  • Kari Taylor, M.S. student
  • Post-docs
  • Cinnamon Pace, Ph. D.
  • Jenna Monroy, Ph.D.