Actions for cleaner technologies transfer a point of view from jordan
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Actions for Cleaner Technologies Transfer: A Point of View from Jordan. Dr Sayfeddin Muaz Executive Vice President Royal Scientific Society – Jordan www.rss.gov.jo. UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education.

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Actions for cleaner technologies transfer a point of view from jordan

Actions for Cleaner Technologies Transfer: A Point of View from Jordan

Dr Sayfeddin Muaz

Executive Vice President

Royal Scientific Society – Jordan

www.rss.gov.jo


Un millennium development goals mdgs

UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

2. Achieve universal primary education.

3. Promote gender equality & empower women

4. Reduce child mortality.

5. Improve maternal health.

6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria & other diseases.

7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

8. Develop a global partnership for development.

  • MDGs: to be reached worldwide by 2015 and by every individual country.

  • Success will require breaking with “business as usual” and achieving a

  • “sustained action” by all.


Technology transfer

Technology transfer

Technology transfer is defined as a process for conceiving of a new application for an existing technology.

It is also defined as a process for converting research into economic development and reducing an idea to practice in a prototype.


R d expenditure as of gdp 1996 2003 i

R&D expenditure as % of GDP 1996 – 2003 (I)

Source: UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Badran and Zou’bi (2006)


R d expenditure as of gdp 1996 2003 ii

R&D expenditure as % of GDP 1996 – 2003 (II)

Source: UNESCO Institute of Statistics, and Badran (2006)


Scientific and technical journal articles published 1996 2005

Scientific and Technical Journal Articles Published (1996 – 2005)

Source: UNESCO institute of Statistics, and Badran (2006)


Scientific and technical journal articles published 1996 20051

Scientific and Technical Journal Articles Published (1996 – 2005)

Source: UNESCO institute of Statistics, and Badran (2006)


Patent applications filed by residents 1997 2004

Patent Applications Filed by Residents (1997-2004)

Source: World Intellectual Property Organization's industrial property statistics database

and Badran (2006).


Share of high technology exports in total manufacturing exports 2004

Share of High-Technology Exports in Total Manufacturing Exports (2004).

Source: United Nations Statistics Division Commodity Trade (COMTRADE) Database and Badran (2006).


Mdgs goals

MDGs Goals.


Actions for cleaner technologies transfer a point of view from jordan

MDGs Goals.


Internet penetration top 10 oic countries

Internet Penetration: Top 10 OIC Countries

Source: http://www.internetworldstats.com and Zou’bi (2007)


Where are we in the arab region

Where are we in the Arab region:

  • In education:

    • Some countries have liberated themselves from illiteracy down to 2-8%, while others continue to have a high rate. Illiteracy rate averages 34% where 72% of them women: world’s highest adult illiteracy, driven by population growth.

    • Investment in education raised to 6% of GDP (comparable to Europe), however, delivery in term of quality, is below standards.

    • Higher education has expanded to 300 universities of 3.6 million students with a ratio of 1:20 in some countries to a ratio of 1:40 in other countries,


Where are we in the arab region1

Where are we in the Arab region:

  • In science:

    • Arab investment in science is 0.2% of GDP as compared to 1% of developing countries, 1.7% of world average, 2.3% of developed countries.

    • Arab R&D, education and health combined less than expenditure on military.


Where are we in the arab region2

Where are we in the Arab region:

  • In protecting the environment:

    - increasing environmental problems for years including urban environmental issues, land resources problems, and water scarcity.

    - Several punctual projects such as waste minimization, water savings or energy efficiency were undertaken or are in the state of implementation for mitigating environmental degradation.


Who funds what in r d

Who funds what in R&D

  • R&D in the Arab region

    • 3% private sector

    • 27% universities

    • 70% govt. sector

  • R&D in the OECD

    • 70% private sector

    • 3% non-profit sector

    • 17% universities

    • 10% by govt. sector


Challenges

Challenges

  • Low literacy level (50%) and low enrollment in higher education

  • High population growth rate

  • Low R&D expenditure

  • Non competitive industry and knowledge producing institutions

  • Limited private sector R&D and Innovation activities

  • Weak linkages between industry and university

  • Brain Drain


Actions to foster cleaner technologies implementation

Actions to Foster Cleaner Technologies Implementation

The actions are grouped as follows:

  • Policy Level

  • Technical Level

  • Financial Matters

    In the following slides, certain key actions and examples are demonstrated.


Policy level

Policy Level

  • Develop the necessary strategies and action plans to encourage the application of clean technologies.

  • This shall include the utilization of resources (water and energy).

  • The legislative framework should also be pro clean technologies. For example in licensing new buildings, it shall be mandatory to have the solar heaters, heat insulations, water harvesting, and grey water reuse systems (for large consumers).


Policy level1

Policy Level

  • Providing incentives: the recent Energy Strategy (in Jordan) represents a good example on how reduction in tax and customs duties can advance the use of cleaner technologies.

  • On community level, households are now more encouraged to install solar heating systems.

  • In practice, taking the current fuel cost into account, then for an average family size of 5 persons (in Jordan), the payback period for a solar system (550 JD) is estimated to be 4-5 months. Cost of an average solar heating system = cost of 1 ton of diesel.


Technical level

Technical Level

  • Support technical programs that ensure capacity building in cleaner technologies and environmentally sound practices.

  • A life example is being implemented at RSS: to date the Cleaner Production Unit at RSS has undertaken cleaner production (CP) assessments for about 40 enterprises.

  • Many of the measures resulted from the assessment were concerned with improving the management of water use and energy efficiency.

  • The CP program is a good example of how the know how transfer for enterprises can lead to the adoption of cleaner technologies and thus better sustainability.

  • For more details: www.cp.org.jo

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defines CP as the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy applied to processes, products, and services in order to increase eco-efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.


Example from a water demand management program at rss

Example from a water demand management program at RSS

Treatment of grey water at the private dorms of Mu’ta University by RSS using Septic Tank followed by Intermittent Sand Filter. The project was coupled with intensive community participation to ensure sustainability.


Example from a water demand management program at rss1

Example from a water demand management program at RSS

Awareness raising particularly for the youth (the leaders of tomorrow) is imperative.


Technical level1

Technical Level

  • It is also imperative to foster programs for disseminating the results and findings of projects.

  • Adopting Building Codes and Technical Standards, a useful tool to control construction and secure funding.

  • Development of GUIDE books is seen essential to enable wider application of eco-systems.

  • Examples of useful guides:

    • Grey water treatment and reuse

    • Cleaner production assessment for SMEs

    • Hazardous substances management for small & medium industries


Financial matters

Financial Matters

  • Certainly all programs to be developed and introduced would require financing.

  • Thus, it is necessary to ensure availability of funding through government budget as well as from international partners.

  • Islamic banks can introduce new funding mechanism like Green Credit.

  • National and regional award systems are also necessary

    • King Abdullah II Award for Excellence

    • Prince Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz International Prize for Water

    • Award of Saudi Arabia for Environmental Management


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Develop eco-based strategies.

  • Develop the technical capacity by cooperative programs for technical know-how transfer in cleaner production and cleaner technologies.

  • Further the awareness raising at professional level and for the youth through intensive training.

  • Secure financing through governments and international funds, as well as by establishing Green funding mechanisms by Islamic Banking .

  • Support entrepreneurship and create incubators to nurture ideas and creativity.

  • Islamic Banking can provide Venture Capital to fund ideas and R & D outputs.


Thank you

THANK YOU


Available codes and standards in arab countries

Available Codes and Standards in Arab Countries


Percentage of employees trained

percentage of employees trained

• In 2002, the average percentage of employees trained ranged from 59 percent in Japanese organizations to 90 percent in organizations in Africa and Australia/New Zealand. Organizations in the U.S. trained an average of 79 percent of employees in 2002.

• As a percentage of payroll, organizations in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East were consistently the biggest spenders from 1999 through 2002, and organizations in Japan and the U.S. spent the least. In 2002, African organizations spent an average of 5.9 percent of payroll on training, while U.S. organizations spent an average of 2.2 percent.

• In 2002, the average percentage of training budgets that European organizations spent on outside services (44 percent) was double that of U.S. organizations (22 percent).

• In 2002, Japanese organizations were the biggest users of learning technologies, delivering 20 percent of training via technology compared to 15 percent in U.S. organizations. Latin American organizations delivered the smallest percentage of training via technology in 2002 (3 percent).

Source ASTD


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