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12 th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference. River Basin Management and Restoration: An Ecosystem Perspective. Robert H. Kennedy European Research Office Engineer Research and Development Center U.S. Army Corps of Engineers London, United Kingdom.

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River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

River Basin Management and

Restoration: An Ecosystem

Perspective

Robert H. Kennedy

European Research Office

Engineer Research and Development Center

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

London, United Kingdom


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Water Resources and Society

Needs and Services

  • Food Production

  • Transport of Goods

  • Industrial Development

  • Quality of Life


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Water Resources and Society

Changing Demands

World population is increasing (estimated to peak at 7.3-10.7 x 109 by 2050) .

3,800 km3 freshwater withdrawal (twice the volume withdrawn 50 years ago).

By 2025, 3.5 109 people will live in countries facing severe water shortage (6.5 times the current situation.


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Water Resources and Society

Conflicting Demands

Diversion of water from agricultural to industrial and municipal uses.

Environmental or ecological ‘health’ balanced against human demand.

Inequity leading to social conflict


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Sustainability

The Inevitability of Development

United Nations Commission on Environmental

And Development (1987).Sustainable development

means meeting “…the needs of the present without

compromising the ability of future generations to

meet their own needs

Basiago (1995).Sustainability is “…regarded as

tantamount to a new philosophy, in which principles

of futurity, equity, global environmentalism and

biodiversity must guide decision making."


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources

Based on

Straškraba, 1996

Meybeck et al., 1989

Time / Space

Sewage,

Oxygen Balance

1950

1970

1990

2000+


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

  • Dissolved Oxygen Sag

  • Streeter-Phelps Equation

  • Waste Load Allocation

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources

Time / Space

Nutrients

Eutrophication

Sewage,

Oxygen Balance

1950

1970

1990

2000+


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

Chlorophyll

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Total Phosphorus

Threats to Water Resources

  • Eutrophication

  • Importance of Nutrients (P)

  • Point source elimination

  • (U. S. Clean Water Act 1972)


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

The Importance of

Nonpoint Sources

Mississippi River Basin

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

Slightly Polluted

Moderately Polluted

Highly Polluted

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources

Watershed-Scale Considerations

Danube River Basin


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources

Acidification

Organics and Metals

Time / Space

Nutrients

Eutrophication

Sewage,

Oxygen Balance

1950

1970

1990

2000+


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

Acidification

The importance of

air-sheds to our

understanding of

water resource

impacts

Based on Hatier, 1993 (from UNEP/GRID-Arendal)

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources

Contaminants

  • Diffuse nature

  • Long residence time

  • Treatment challenges


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources

Global Climate

Change

Acidification

Organics and Metals

Time / Space

Nutrients

Eutrophication

Sewage,

Oxygen Balance

1950

1970

1990

2000+


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Threats to Water Resources

Precipitation

Scenarios for the

United Kingdom

for 2080

Predictions based the

the application of nine

climate change models

(Hulme et al. 2002)

…there will be change.

Deviations

Relative to

1961-1990


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

CPOM/FPOM

Biotic Diversity

Channel Width

P/R>1

P/R<1

P/R<1

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Evolving Concepts

The River Continuum (Vannote et al., 1980)


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

Dams

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Evolving Concepts

Serial Discontinuity (Ward and Stanford 1998, 2001)


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

Surface Water

Control by slopes and

surface permeability

Ground Water

Control by hydraulic

conductivity of the

geologic formations

Atmospheric-Water

Exchange

Control by climate

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Evolving Concepts

Hydrologic Landscape (Winter et al., 1998)


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Ecosystem Perspective

Water Resources as Integral Features of

Complex Landscapes….with Competing

Demands for their Use


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Ecosystem Sustainability

Based on Jensen

and Everett, 1994

Ecology

Sustainable

Ecosystem

Management

Society

(Desires & Needs)

Economy &

Technology


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

Sustainability

Imposed Stress

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Evolving Concepts

The Challenge of Sustainability


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

Assessment

  • Reference Condition (setting goals)

  • Pristine or minimally impacted

  • Conserving key system features (time and space)

  • Constraints (policy and planning)

  • Linking cause and effect

Adaptation and Reassessment

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Evolving Concepts

Management and Restoration


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Summary

Themes

  • Dependence on scarce water resources

  • Threats to their quality and persistence

  • Adopting an ecosystem perspective

  • Developing concepts

  • The challenge of sustainability


River basin management and restoration an ecosystem perspective

12th Annual Partnership for Peace Environmental Conference

Session: River Basin and Delta Conservation and Restoration

Focus

  • Danube River and Delta

  • Rhine River

  • Mississippi River and Delta

  • Chesapeake Bay


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