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How to Calculate Your Grade. You have completed 500 out of 700 total points Add together: Lecture exam 1 Lecture exam 2 Lab exam 1 Lab exam 2 Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest) Divide by 500 REMEMBER:

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how to calculate your grade
How to Calculate Your Grade
  • You have completed 500 out of 700 total points
  • Add together:
    • Lecture exam 1
    • Lecture exam 2
    • Lab exam 1
    • Lab exam 2
    • Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest)
  • Divide by 500
  • REMEMBER:
    • You must have at least a “C” = 68 in both lab and lecture separately to pass course
how to calculate the number of points you need to pass
How to Calculate the Number of points you need to pass
  • You need a total of 476 out of 700 points to get a C
  • Take the total number of points you just calculated (the sum of 4 exams and quiz average) and subtract it from 476
  • The number you have is the total number of points you need
  • If you divide that number by 2, you will see the approximate grade you’ll need on lab exam 3 and lecture exam 3.
  • REMEMBER: the rules from previous page apply
    • Have to have at least C in lecture and lab separately
organs of the abdomen

Organs of the Abdomen

Systems: Urinary and Digestive

urinary system
Urinary System
  • Kidneys
    • Purify blood
  • Ureters
    • Drain urine from kidney to bladder
  • Urinary Bladder
    • Store urine
  • Urethra
    • Drain urine from bladder to outside body

pg 5

kidneys major excretory organs
Kidneys: major excretory organs
  • Remove toxins, metabolic waste, excess H2O, ions
    • Urea, uric acid, creatinin
  • Regulates volume + makeup of blood
    • Maintains balance between
      • Salts and water
      • Acids and bases
kidneys gross anatomy
Kidneys: Gross Anatomy
  • Located superior lumbar region
  • Posterior abdominal wall (T12-L3)
  • Retroperitoneal
  • Hilus
  • Adrenal Gland: superomedial to kidney
  • Renal Artery + Vein
  • Innervation: branches of renal plexus

pg 648

kidneys gross anatomy1
Kidneys: Gross Anatomy
  • Renal Capsule
    • Layer of tough CT
    • Maintains shape
    • Prevents spread of infection
  • Adipose Capsule
    • External to renal cap
    • Perirenal fat
    • Surrounded by fascia
    • Keeps in place, cushions
  • Pararenal Fat
    • External to adipose cap
    • Keeps in place, cushions

pg 649

kidney internal anatomy
Kidney: Internal Anatomy
  • Cortex
    • Superficial
    • Light, granular
    • Part of functional unit
  • Medulla
    • Deep layer
    • Darker
    • Pyramid-cone shape
    • Contain collecting tubule collect urine

Pg 650

kidney internal anatomy1
Kidney: Internal Anatomy
  • Medullary Pyramid
    • Base: against cortex
    • Apex: inward
      • Papilla = tip
      • Drips urine into minor calyx
  • Minor Calyx (calices)
    • Cup-shaped divisions of major calices
    • Surround papilla of pyramid
  • Major Calyx (calices)
    • Larger cup-shaped branches of renal pelvis
  • Renal Pelvis
    • Flat expansion of ureter
    • Collects urine

Pg 650

kidney microscopic anatomy
Kidney: Microscopic Anatomy
  • Functional Unit
    • Uriniferous Tubule
      • Nephron
      • Collecting tubule
    • Waste is filtered out
    • Waste products formed
    • Located in lobes of kidneys

pg 652

ureters
Ureters
  • Slender tubes transport urine
  • Run from kidneys to bladder
  • Retroperitoneal
  • Continuation of renal pelvis
  • Enters bladder at oblique angle to prevent backflow
  • Increased pressure in bladder closes distal end of ureter

pg 648

ureters 3 layers
Ureters: 3 Layers
  • External: Adventitia
    • CT
  • Middle: Muscularis
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Inner Longitudinal
    • Outer Circular
    • External longitudinal (on distal third)
    • Peristalsis
  • Inner: Mucosa
    • Transitional epithelium
bladder
Bladder
  • Muscular sac store and expel urine
  • Location
    • On pelvic floor
    • Posterior
      • Pubic symphysis
    • Anterior
      • Males = rectum
      • Females = vagina, uterus
  • Collapses + Expands
    • Full  into abdominal cav
    • Emptystays in pelvic cav
  • Supplied by branches of internal iliac arteries + veins
  • Innervated = branches of hypogastric plexus

pg 648

bladder internal anatomy
Bladder: Internal Anatomy
  • 3 Layers
    • Mucosa = transitional epithelium & lamina propria
    • Detrusor Muscle: smooth muscle
      • Inner/Outer longitudinal, Middle circular
    • Fibrous Adventitia = CT
      • Parietal peritoneum on superior surface instead

trigone

pg 662

urethra
Urethra
  • Drains urine from bladder to outside
  • Female = short tube
  • Males = long tube
    • Prostatic, Membranous, Spongy (penile) portions
    • Also carries semen
  • Internal Urethral Sphincter
    • Between bladder + urethra
    • Thickening of detrusor (smooth muscle)
  • External Urethral Sphincter
    • Within urogenital diaphragm
    • Skeletal muscle = voluntary control urination
  • External Urethral Orifice
    • Males = end of penile urethra
    • Females = anterior to vaginal opening, posterior to clitoris
micturition urination
Micturition = Urination
  • Emptying bladder
    • Stretch receptors in bladder respond when bladder full
    • Parasympathetic signals detrusor muscle to contract and internal urinary sphincter to open (also inhibits sympathetic pathways that would prevent urination)
    • Other brain receptors can inhibit urination by relaxing detrusor, and keep external urinary sphincter closed
    • Voluntary contraction of abdominal wall muscles increases abdominal pressure
    • Voluntary relaxation of external urethral sphincter

See pg 663

digestion system
Digestion System
  • Alimentary Canal
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
  • Accessory Organs
    • Teeth, Tongue
    • Salivary Glands
    • Gallbladder
    • Liver
    • Pancreas

pg 5

food processing activities
Food Processing Activities
  • Ingestion: taking food into mouth
  • Propulsion: food moves through gut
    • Swallowing + Peristalsis
  • Mechanical Digestion: breakdown of food
    • Chewing, Churning, Segmentation
  • Chemical Digestion: chemical breakdown
    • Enzymes
  • Absorption: Digestive end products into blood
  • Defecation: Removal of waste products
alimentary canal wall
Alimentary Canal Wall
  • Internal = Mucosa + Submucosa
    • Epithelium
    • Lamina propria:
      • contains MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
    • Muscularis mucosae
    • Submucosa = CT w/elastic fibers, nerves, vessels
  • Middle = Muscularis Externa
    • Inner circular layer
    • Outer longitudinal layer
    • Creates sphincters
  • Outer = Serosa or Adventitia
innervation of alimentary canal
Innervation of Alimentary Canal
  • 2 Plexuses: Myenteric & Submucosal
    • Parasympathetic, Sympathetic, Visceral Sensory fibers
  • Enteric Nervous System
    • 100 million neurons in walls of alimentary canal = internal system
    • Within above plexuses
    • Independent reflex arcs
    • Controls glandular secretion, peristalsis, segmentation
    • Autonomic Nervous System speeds up or slows activity controlled by enteric system
stomach
Stomach
  • “J” shape
  • Cardiac Region
    • Junction esophagus
    • Cardiac sphincter (Gastroesophageal)
  • Fundus (“dome”)
    • Under diaphragm
  • Body
    • Large, middle part
  • Pylorus
    • Distal portion
    • Pyloric sphincter
  • Greater Curvature
  • Lesser Curvature

Pg 624

internal anatomy of stomach
Internal Anatomy of Stomach
  • Mucosa
    • Rugae: mucosal folds allow expansion
    • Many intrinsic glands
      • Goblet cells
      • Gastric glands
    • Typical Submucosa
  • Muscularis externa
    • Oblique layer
    • Circular layer
      • Pyloric sphincter
    • Longitudinal layer
  • Serosa

pg 624

function of stomach
Function of Stomach
  • Temporary storage of chyme
  • Breakdown begins
    • Churn, segmentation
    • Pepsin proteins
  • Absorption
    • H2O, electrolytes
    • Alcohol, other drugs
  • Stays about 4 hours
  • Hold from1.5-4 liters
small intestine parts functions
Small Intestine: Parts + Functions
  • Parts
    • Duodenum = proximal (5%)
    • Jejunum = middle (~40%)
    • Ileum = distal (~55%)
  • Majority of enzymatic digestion
    • Bile: emulsifier (gallbladder, liver)
    • Enzymes (pancreas)
  • Almost all nutrient absorption
  • Segmentation
    • Moves chyme around to increase contact with intestine walls
  • Food takes about 3-6 hours to move through
  • 2.7- 6 meters
small intestine internal features
Small Intestine: Internal Features
  • Intestinal flora: produce vitamin K
  • Simple columnar epithelium w/many modifications for absorption
  • Lymph tissue in submucosa
  • Muscularis externa has 2 layers
  • Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus
  • Arterial supply:
    • Superior mesenteric
    • Rt (cranial) pancreaticoduodenal
small intestine modifications of epithelium for absorption
Small Intestine:Modifications of epithelium for absorption
  • Length
    • Increase surface area
  • Plicae circularis
    • Transverse ridges of mucosa
    • Increase surface area
    • Slow movement of chyme
  • Villi
    • Move chyme, increase contact
    • Contain lacteals: remove fat
  • Microvilli:
    • Increase surface area
  • Modifications decrease distally

pg 629

small intestine
Small Intestine
  • Duodenum:
    • short, straight
    • Mostly retroperitoneal
  • Jejunum & Ileum:
    • highly coiled
    • Fewer modifications
    • Hang by mesentery in peritoneal cavity
    • Mesentery Arcades
      • Arteries + veins
      • Nerves
      • Store fat

Pg 614

large intestine
Large Intestine
  • Cecum
  • Vermiform appendix
  • Colon
    • Ascending
    • Transverse
    • Descending
    • Sigmoid
  • Rectum
  • Anal Canal

pg 631

large intestine1
Large Intestine
  • Functions:
    • Absorb water and electrolytes
    • Form, store and expel feces from body
  • Internal Features:
    • Intestinal flora
    • No intestinal villi or modifications for absorption
    • Many goblet cells
    • Simple columnar epithelium except lower half of anal canal
    • Significant Lymph tissue in mucosa & submucosa
    • Muscularis mucosae has 2 layers
  • Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus
colon external features
Colon: External Features
  • Taeniae coli
    • 3 longitudinal strips
    • thickening of longitudinal muscle
    • maintain muscle tone
    • create haustra
  • Haustra
    • saclike divisions
  • Epiploic Appendages
    • fat-filled pouches
    • significance unknown

pg 631

cecum vermiform appendix
Cecum + Vermiform Appendix
  • Cecum
    • sac-like, blind pouch
  • Ileocecal valve
    • raised edges of mucosa
    • prevents feces going back into ileum
  • Vermiform Appendix
    • same layers
    • blind tube opens into cecum
    • masses of lymph tissue

pg 631

colon
Colon
  • Ascending colon
    • Right side
    • Hepatic flexure (= right colic flexure)
  • Transverse colon
    • Across cavity
  • Descending colon
    • Left side
    • Splenic flexure (= left colic flexure )
  • Sigmoid colon
    • Enters pelvis
    • “S” shape

pg 631

colon function
Colon: Function
  • Absorb H2O and electrolytes
  • Some digestion by bacteria
  • Mass Peristaltic Movements (2-3x day)
  • Moves through in 12-24 hours
  • 1.5 meters
rectum anal canal
Rectum + Anal Canal
  • Rectum
    • descends into pelvis
    • no teniae coli
    • longitudinal muscle layer complete
    • rectal valves
  • Anal Canal
    • passes through levator ani muscle
    • releases mucus to lubricate feces
    • Internal anal sphincter
      • involuntary, smooth m.
    • External anal sphincter
      • voluntary, skeletal m.
    • Stratified squamosal epithelium at lower half

pg 632

defecation reflex
Defecation Reflex
  • Stretching of rectum wall initiates reflex
  • Spinal cord - parasympathetic signals sigmoid colon + rectum to contract + anal sphincter to relax (involuntary)
  • If not ready-reflex ends- rectum relaxes
  • Reflex initiated again until you go!
  • Contraction of abdominal muscles, levator ani + diaphragm assists defecation (voluntary)
liver

pg 610

Liver
  • Largest gland (3 lbs)
  • Location
    • Upper Right Quadrant
    • Mostly under ribcage
  • Highly vascular
  • Some functions
    • produce bile
    • pick up glucose
    • detoxify poison, drugs
    • make blood proteins
    • many others

pg 635

liver external features
Liver: External Features
  • Diaphragmatic surface
    • Right lobe (larger)
    • Left lobe
    • Falciform ligament
    • Fissure between
  • Visceral surface
    • Quadrate lobe
    • Caudate lobe
    • Both part of left lobe

pg 635

liver visceral surface
Liver: Visceral Surface
  • Hepatic Vein (into inferior vena cava)
  • Porta Hepatis
    • Hepatic Artery (from abdominal aorta )
    • Hepatic Portal Vein
      • Carries nutrient-rich blood from stomach + intestines to liver
      • Portal system = 2 capillary beds!
    • Hepatic Ducts (carry bile)

pg 636

gallbladder
Gallbladder
  • Muscular sac
  • Between right + quadrate liver lobes
  • Bile is stored + concentrated
  • Bile: breaks down fats = emulsification
  • Bile
    • Produced by liver
    • Stored in gallbladder

pg 610

gallbladder continued
Gallbladder continued
  • Mucosa & lamina propria
    • Simple columnar epithelium
    • Expandable mucosal folds
  • Smooth muscle layer
  • Thick connective tissue
    • Covered by serosa in places
bile ducts
Bile Ducts
  • Cystic duct
    • carries bile from gallbladder
  • Hepatic duct
    • carries bile from liver
  • Common Bile duct
    • joins cystic and hepatic
    • carries bile into duodenum

pg 628

movement of bile
Movement of Bile
  • Bile secreted by liver continuously
  • Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla
    • common bile + main pancreatic duct meet and enter duodenum
    • Sphincter of Oddi around it
    • closed when bile not needed for digestion
  • Bile then backs up into gallbladder via cystic duct
  • When needed gallbladder contracts, sphincters open

pg 628

pancreas
Pancreas
  • Retroperitoneal
  • Gland
    • Exocrine
      • digestive enzymes
    • Endocrine
      • hormone insulin
      • hormone glucagon
  • Location
    • curve of duodenum
    • extends to spleen

pg 639

ducts of pancreas
Ducts of Pancreas
  • Main Pancreatic duct
    • joins common bile duct
    • enters duodenum
    • Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla
  • Accessory Pancreatic duct
    • enters duodenum in other location

pg 628

spleen
Spleen
  • Largest lymph organ
  • Highly vascular
  • Function
    • remove blood-borne antigens (immune)
    • remove and destroy old/damaged blood cells
    • stores blood platelets
    • In fetus: site of hematopoiesis

pg 639

arterial blood supply to abdominal viscera
Arterial Blood Supply to Abdominal Viscera
  • All branches of Abdominal Aorta
  • Anastomoses
    • Left + Middle colic
    • Left + Right gastric
    • Left + Right gastroepiploic
    • Cranial + Caudal pancreaticoduodenal
    • Deep Iliac Circumflex + Adrenolumbar
  • STUDY HAND OUT! MUST KNOW WHAT SUPPLIES WHAT!!
names give hints
Hepato = liver

Pancreatico = pancreas

Cystic = gallbladder

Gastro = stomach

Splenic = spleen

Adreno = adrenal gl

Lumbar = lumbar region

Epiploic = membrane-covered

Mesenteric = mesentery

Duodenal = duodenum

Ileo = ileum

Colic = colon

Rectal = rectum

Names give hints!
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