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How to Calculate Your Grade. You have completed 500 out of 700 total points Add together: Lecture exam 1 Lecture exam 2 Lab exam 1 Lab exam 2 Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest) Divide by 500 REMEMBER:

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How to calculate your grade l.jpg
How to Calculate Your Grade

  • You have completed 500 out of 700 total points

  • Add together:

    • Lecture exam 1

    • Lecture exam 2

    • Lab exam 1

    • Lab exam 2

    • Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest)

  • Divide by 500

  • REMEMBER:

    • You must have at least a “C” = 68 in both lab and lecture separately to pass course


How to calculate the number of points you need to pass l.jpg
How to Calculate the Number of points you need to pass

  • You need a total of 476 out of 700 points to get a C

  • Take the total number of points you just calculated (the sum of 4 exams and quiz average) and subtract it from 476

  • The number you have is the total number of points you need

  • If you divide that number by 2, you will see the approximate grade you’ll need on lab exam 3 and lecture exam 3.

  • REMEMBER: the rules from previous page apply

    • Have to have at least C in lecture and lab separately


Organs of the abdomen l.jpg

Organs of the Abdomen

Systems: Urinary and Digestive


Urinary system l.jpg
Urinary System

  • Kidneys

    • Purify blood

  • Ureters

    • Drain urine from kidney to bladder

  • Urinary Bladder

    • Store urine

  • Urethra

    • Drain urine from bladder to outside body

pg 5


Kidneys major excretory organs l.jpg
Kidneys: major excretory organs

  • Remove toxins, metabolic waste, excess H2O, ions

    • Urea, uric acid, creatinin

  • Regulates volume + makeup of blood

    • Maintains balance between

      • Salts and water

      • Acids and bases


Kidneys gross anatomy l.jpg
Kidneys: Gross Anatomy

  • Located superior lumbar region

  • Posterior abdominal wall (T12-L3)

  • Retroperitoneal

  • Hilus

  • Adrenal Gland: superomedial to kidney

  • Renal Artery + Vein

  • Innervation: branches of renal plexus

pg 648


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Kidneys: Gross Anatomy

  • Renal Capsule

    • Layer of tough CT

    • Maintains shape

    • Prevents spread of infection

  • Adipose Capsule

    • External to renal cap

    • Perirenal fat

    • Surrounded by fascia

    • Keeps in place, cushions

  • Pararenal Fat

    • External to adipose cap

    • Keeps in place, cushions

pg 649


Kidney internal anatomy l.jpg
Kidney: Internal Anatomy

  • Cortex

    • Superficial

    • Light, granular

    • Part of functional unit

  • Medulla

    • Deep layer

    • Darker

    • Pyramid-cone shape

    • Contain collecting tubule collect urine

Pg 650


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Kidney: Internal Anatomy

  • Medullary Pyramid

    • Base: against cortex

    • Apex: inward

      • Papilla = tip

      • Drips urine into minor calyx

  • Minor Calyx (calices)

    • Cup-shaped divisions of major calices

    • Surround papilla of pyramid

  • Major Calyx (calices)

    • Larger cup-shaped branches of renal pelvis

  • Renal Pelvis

    • Flat expansion of ureter

    • Collects urine

Pg 650


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Kidney: Microscopic Anatomy

  • Functional Unit

    • Uriniferous Tubule

      • Nephron

      • Collecting tubule

    • Waste is filtered out

    • Waste products formed

    • Located in lobes of kidneys

pg 652


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Ureters

  • Slender tubes transport urine

  • Run from kidneys to bladder

  • Retroperitoneal

  • Continuation of renal pelvis

  • Enters bladder at oblique angle to prevent backflow

  • Increased pressure in bladder closes distal end of ureter

pg 648


Ureters 3 layers l.jpg
Ureters: 3 Layers

  • External: Adventitia

    • CT

  • Middle: Muscularis

    • Smooth Muscle

    • Inner Longitudinal

    • Outer Circular

    • External longitudinal (on distal third)

    • Peristalsis

  • Inner: Mucosa

    • Transitional epithelium


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Bladder

  • Muscular sac store and expel urine

  • Location

    • On pelvic floor

    • Posterior

      • Pubic symphysis

    • Anterior

      • Males = rectum

      • Females = vagina, uterus

  • Collapses + Expands

    • Full  into abdominal cav

    • Emptystays in pelvic cav

  • Supplied by branches of internal iliac arteries + veins

  • Innervated = branches of hypogastric plexus

pg 648


Bladder internal anatomy l.jpg
Bladder: Internal Anatomy

  • 3 Layers

    • Mucosa = transitional epithelium & lamina propria

    • Detrusor Muscle: smooth muscle

      • Inner/Outer longitudinal, Middle circular

    • Fibrous Adventitia = CT

      • Parietal peritoneum on superior surface instead

trigone

pg 662


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Urethra

  • Drains urine from bladder to outside

  • Female = short tube

  • Males = long tube

    • Prostatic, Membranous, Spongy (penile) portions

    • Also carries semen

  • Internal Urethral Sphincter

    • Between bladder + urethra

    • Thickening of detrusor (smooth muscle)

  • External Urethral Sphincter

    • Within urogenital diaphragm

    • Skeletal muscle = voluntary control urination

  • External Urethral Orifice

    • Males = end of penile urethra

    • Females = anterior to vaginal opening, posterior to clitoris



Micturition urination l.jpg
Micturition = Urination

  • Emptying bladder

    • Stretch receptors in bladder respond when bladder full

    • Parasympathetic signals detrusor muscle to contract and internal urinary sphincter to open (also inhibits sympathetic pathways that would prevent urination)

    • Other brain receptors can inhibit urination by relaxing detrusor, and keep external urinary sphincter closed

    • Voluntary contraction of abdominal wall muscles increases abdominal pressure

    • Voluntary relaxation of external urethral sphincter

See pg 663


Digestion system l.jpg
Digestion System

  • Alimentary Canal

    • Mouth

    • Pharynx

    • Esophagus

    • Stomach

    • Small Intestine

    • Large Intestine

  • Accessory Organs

    • Teeth, Tongue

    • Salivary Glands

    • Gallbladder

    • Liver

    • Pancreas

pg 5


Food processing activities l.jpg
Food Processing Activities

  • Ingestion: taking food into mouth

  • Propulsion: food moves through gut

    • Swallowing + Peristalsis

  • Mechanical Digestion: breakdown of food

    • Chewing, Churning, Segmentation

  • Chemical Digestion: chemical breakdown

    • Enzymes

  • Absorption: Digestive end products into blood

  • Defecation: Removal of waste products


Alimentary canal wall l.jpg
Alimentary Canal Wall

  • Internal = Mucosa + Submucosa

    • Epithelium

    • Lamina propria:

      • contains MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

    • Muscularis mucosae

    • Submucosa = CT w/elastic fibers, nerves, vessels

  • Middle = Muscularis Externa

    • Inner circular layer

    • Outer longitudinal layer

    • Creates sphincters

  • Outer = Serosa or Adventitia


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Innervation of Alimentary Canal

  • 2 Plexuses: Myenteric & Submucosal

    • Parasympathetic, Sympathetic, Visceral Sensory fibers

  • Enteric Nervous System

    • 100 million neurons in walls of alimentary canal = internal system

    • Within above plexuses

    • Independent reflex arcs

    • Controls glandular secretion, peristalsis, segmentation

    • Autonomic Nervous System speeds up or slows activity controlled by enteric system


Stomach l.jpg
Stomach

  • “J” shape

  • Cardiac Region

    • Junction esophagus

    • Cardiac sphincter (Gastroesophageal)

  • Fundus (“dome”)

    • Under diaphragm

  • Body

    • Large, middle part

  • Pylorus

    • Distal portion

    • Pyloric sphincter

  • Greater Curvature

  • Lesser Curvature

Pg 624


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Internal Anatomy of Stomach

  • Mucosa

    • Rugae: mucosal folds allow expansion

    • Many intrinsic glands

      • Goblet cells

      • Gastric glands

    • Typical Submucosa

  • Muscularis externa

    • Oblique layer

    • Circular layer

      • Pyloric sphincter

    • Longitudinal layer

  • Serosa

pg 624


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Function of Stomach

  • Temporary storage of chyme

  • Breakdown begins

    • Churn, segmentation

    • Pepsin proteins

  • Absorption

    • H2O, electrolytes

    • Alcohol, other drugs

  • Stays about 4 hours

  • Hold from1.5-4 liters


Small intestine parts functions l.jpg
Small Intestine: Parts + Functions

  • Parts

    • Duodenum = proximal (5%)

    • Jejunum = middle (~40%)

    • Ileum = distal (~55%)

  • Majority of enzymatic digestion

    • Bile: emulsifier (gallbladder, liver)

    • Enzymes (pancreas)

  • Almost all nutrient absorption

  • Segmentation

    • Moves chyme around to increase contact with intestine walls

  • Food takes about 3-6 hours to move through

  • 2.7- 6 meters


Small intestine internal features l.jpg
Small Intestine: Internal Features

  • Intestinal flora: produce vitamin K

  • Simple columnar epithelium w/many modifications for absorption

  • Lymph tissue in submucosa

  • Muscularis externa has 2 layers

  • Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus

  • Arterial supply:

    • Superior mesenteric

    • Rt (cranial) pancreaticoduodenal


Small intestine modifications of epithelium for absorption l.jpg
Small Intestine:Modifications of epithelium for absorption

  • Length

    • Increase surface area

  • Plicae circularis

    • Transverse ridges of mucosa

    • Increase surface area

    • Slow movement of chyme

  • Villi

    • Move chyme, increase contact

    • Contain lacteals: remove fat

  • Microvilli:

    • Increase surface area

  • Modifications decrease distally

pg 629


Small intestine l.jpg
Small Intestine

  • Duodenum:

    • short, straight

    • Mostly retroperitoneal

  • Jejunum & Ileum:

    • highly coiled

    • Fewer modifications

    • Hang by mesentery in peritoneal cavity

    • Mesentery Arcades

      • Arteries + veins

      • Nerves

      • Store fat

Pg 614


Large intestine l.jpg
Large Intestine

  • Cecum

  • Vermiform appendix

  • Colon

    • Ascending

    • Transverse

    • Descending

    • Sigmoid

  • Rectum

  • Anal Canal

pg 631


Large intestine30 l.jpg
Large Intestine

  • Functions:

    • Absorb water and electrolytes

    • Form, store and expel feces from body

  • Internal Features:

    • Intestinal flora

    • No intestinal villi or modifications for absorption

    • Many goblet cells

    • Simple columnar epithelium except lower half of anal canal

    • Significant Lymph tissue in mucosa & submucosa

    • Muscularis mucosae has 2 layers

  • Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus


Colon external features l.jpg
Colon: External Features

  • Taeniae coli

    • 3 longitudinal strips

    • thickening of longitudinal muscle

    • maintain muscle tone

    • create haustra

  • Haustra

    • saclike divisions

  • Epiploic Appendages

    • fat-filled pouches

    • significance unknown

pg 631


Cecum vermiform appendix l.jpg
Cecum + Vermiform Appendix

  • Cecum

    • sac-like, blind pouch

  • Ileocecal valve

    • raised edges of mucosa

    • prevents feces going back into ileum

  • Vermiform Appendix

    • same layers

    • blind tube opens into cecum

    • masses of lymph tissue

pg 631


Colon l.jpg
Colon

  • Ascending colon

    • Right side

    • Hepatic flexure (= right colic flexure)

  • Transverse colon

    • Across cavity

  • Descending colon

    • Left side

    • Splenic flexure (= left colic flexure )

  • Sigmoid colon

    • Enters pelvis

    • “S” shape

pg 631


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Colon: Function

  • Absorb H2O and electrolytes

  • Some digestion by bacteria

  • Mass Peristaltic Movements (2-3x day)

  • Moves through in 12-24 hours

  • 1.5 meters


Rectum anal canal l.jpg
Rectum + Anal Canal

  • Rectum

    • descends into pelvis

    • no teniae coli

    • longitudinal muscle layer complete

    • rectal valves

  • Anal Canal

    • passes through levator ani muscle

    • releases mucus to lubricate feces

    • Internal anal sphincter

      • involuntary, smooth m.

    • External anal sphincter

      • voluntary, skeletal m.

    • Stratified squamosal epithelium at lower half

pg 632


Defecation reflex l.jpg
Defecation Reflex

  • Stretching of rectum wall initiates reflex

  • Spinal cord - parasympathetic signals sigmoid colon + rectum to contract + anal sphincter to relax (involuntary)

  • If not ready-reflex ends- rectum relaxes

  • Reflex initiated again until you go!

  • Contraction of abdominal muscles, levator ani + diaphragm assists defecation (voluntary)


Liver l.jpg

pg 610

Liver

  • Largest gland (3 lbs)

  • Location

    • Upper Right Quadrant

    • Mostly under ribcage

  • Highly vascular

  • Some functions

    • produce bile

    • pick up glucose

    • detoxify poison, drugs

    • make blood proteins

    • many others

pg 635


Liver external features l.jpg
Liver: External Features

  • Diaphragmatic surface

    • Right lobe (larger)

    • Left lobe

    • Falciform ligament

    • Fissure between

  • Visceral surface

    • Quadrate lobe

    • Caudate lobe

    • Both part of left lobe

pg 635


Liver visceral surface l.jpg
Liver: Visceral Surface

  • Hepatic Vein (into inferior vena cava)

  • Porta Hepatis

    • Hepatic Artery (from abdominal aorta )

    • Hepatic Portal Vein

      • Carries nutrient-rich blood from stomach + intestines to liver

      • Portal system = 2 capillary beds!

    • Hepatic Ducts (carry bile)

pg 636


Gallbladder l.jpg
Gallbladder

  • Muscular sac

  • Between right + quadrate liver lobes

  • Bile is stored + concentrated

  • Bile: breaks down fats = emulsification

  • Bile

    • Produced by liver

    • Stored in gallbladder

pg 610


Gallbladder continued l.jpg
Gallbladder continued

  • Mucosa & lamina propria

    • Simple columnar epithelium

    • Expandable mucosal folds

  • Smooth muscle layer

  • Thick connective tissue

    • Covered by serosa in places


Bile ducts l.jpg
Bile Ducts

  • Cystic duct

    • carries bile from gallbladder

  • Hepatic duct

    • carries bile from liver

  • Common Bile duct

    • joins cystic and hepatic

    • carries bile into duodenum

pg 628


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Movement of Bile

  • Bile secreted by liver continuously

  • Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla

    • common bile + main pancreatic duct meet and enter duodenum

    • Sphincter of Oddi around it

    • closed when bile not needed for digestion

  • Bile then backs up into gallbladder via cystic duct

  • When needed gallbladder contracts, sphincters open

pg 628


Pancreas l.jpg
Pancreas

  • Retroperitoneal

  • Gland

    • Exocrine

      • digestive enzymes

    • Endocrine

      • hormone insulin

      • hormone glucagon

  • Location

    • curve of duodenum

    • extends to spleen

pg 639


Ducts of pancreas l.jpg
Ducts of Pancreas

  • Main Pancreatic duct

    • joins common bile duct

    • enters duodenum

    • Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla

  • Accessory Pancreatic duct

    • enters duodenum in other location

pg 628


Spleen l.jpg
Spleen

  • Largest lymph organ

  • Highly vascular

  • Function

    • remove blood-borne antigens (immune)

    • remove and destroy old/damaged blood cells

    • stores blood platelets

    • In fetus: site of hematopoiesis

pg 639


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Arterial Blood Supply to Abdominal Viscera

  • All branches of Abdominal Aorta

  • Anastomoses

    • Left + Middle colic

    • Left + Right gastric

    • Left + Right gastroepiploic

    • Cranial + Caudal pancreaticoduodenal

    • Deep Iliac Circumflex + Adrenolumbar

  • STUDY HAND OUT! MUST KNOW WHAT SUPPLIES WHAT!!


Names give hints l.jpg

Hepato = liver

Pancreatico = pancreas

Cystic = gallbladder

Gastro = stomach

Splenic = spleen

Adreno = adrenal gl

Lumbar = lumbar region

Epiploic = membrane-covered

Mesenteric = mesentery

Duodenal = duodenum

Ileo = ileum

Colic = colon

Rectal = rectum

Names give hints!


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