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# how to calculate your grade - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

How to Calculate Your Grade. You have completed 500 out of 700 total points Add together: Lecture exam 1 Lecture exam 2 Lab exam 1 Lab exam 2 Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest) Divide by 500 REMEMBER:

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• You have completed 500 out of 700 total points

• Add together:

• Lecture exam 1

• Lecture exam 2

• Lab exam 1

• Lab exam 2

• Average of your 7 best quizzes (drop lowest)

• Divide by 500

• REMEMBER:

• You must have at least a “C” = 68 in both lab and lecture separately to pass course

• You need a total of 476 out of 700 points to get a C

• Take the total number of points you just calculated (the sum of 4 exams and quiz average) and subtract it from 476

• The number you have is the total number of points you need

• If you divide that number by 2, you will see the approximate grade you’ll need on lab exam 3 and lecture exam 3.

• REMEMBER: the rules from previous page apply

• Have to have at least C in lecture and lab separately

### Organs of the Abdomen

Systems: Urinary and Digestive

• Kidneys

• Purify blood

• Ureters

• Drain urine from kidney to bladder

• Urinary Bladder

• Store urine

• Urethra

• Drain urine from bladder to outside body

pg 5

Kidneys: major excretory organs

• Remove toxins, metabolic waste, excess H2O, ions

• Urea, uric acid, creatinin

• Regulates volume + makeup of blood

• Maintains balance between

• Salts and water

• Acids and bases

• Located superior lumbar region

• Posterior abdominal wall (T12-L3)

• Retroperitoneal

• Hilus

• Adrenal Gland: superomedial to kidney

• Renal Artery + Vein

• Innervation: branches of renal plexus

pg 648

• Renal Capsule

• Layer of tough CT

• Maintains shape

• Prevents spread of infection

• Adipose Capsule

• External to renal cap

• Perirenal fat

• Surrounded by fascia

• Keeps in place, cushions

• Pararenal Fat

• External to adipose cap

• Keeps in place, cushions

pg 649

• Cortex

• Superficial

• Light, granular

• Part of functional unit

• Medulla

• Deep layer

• Darker

• Pyramid-cone shape

• Contain collecting tubule collect urine

Pg 650

• Medullary Pyramid

• Base: against cortex

• Apex: inward

• Papilla = tip

• Drips urine into minor calyx

• Minor Calyx (calices)

• Cup-shaped divisions of major calices

• Surround papilla of pyramid

• Major Calyx (calices)

• Larger cup-shaped branches of renal pelvis

• Renal Pelvis

• Flat expansion of ureter

• Collects urine

Pg 650

• Functional Unit

• Uriniferous Tubule

• Nephron

• Collecting tubule

• Waste is filtered out

• Waste products formed

• Located in lobes of kidneys

pg 652

• Slender tubes transport urine

• Run from kidneys to bladder

• Retroperitoneal

• Continuation of renal pelvis

• Enters bladder at oblique angle to prevent backflow

• Increased pressure in bladder closes distal end of ureter

pg 648

• External: Adventitia

• CT

• Middle: Muscularis

• Smooth Muscle

• Inner Longitudinal

• Outer Circular

• External longitudinal (on distal third)

• Peristalsis

• Inner: Mucosa

• Transitional epithelium

• Muscular sac store and expel urine

• Location

• On pelvic floor

• Posterior

• Pubic symphysis

• Anterior

• Males = rectum

• Females = vagina, uterus

• Collapses + Expands

• Full  into abdominal cav

• Emptystays in pelvic cav

• Supplied by branches of internal iliac arteries + veins

• Innervated = branches of hypogastric plexus

pg 648

• 3 Layers

• Mucosa = transitional epithelium & lamina propria

• Detrusor Muscle: smooth muscle

• Inner/Outer longitudinal, Middle circular

• Fibrous Adventitia = CT

• Parietal peritoneum on superior surface instead

trigone

pg 662

• Drains urine from bladder to outside

• Female = short tube

• Males = long tube

• Prostatic, Membranous, Spongy (penile) portions

• Also carries semen

• Internal Urethral Sphincter

• Between bladder + urethra

• Thickening of detrusor (smooth muscle)

• External Urethral Sphincter

• Within urogenital diaphragm

• Skeletal muscle = voluntary control urination

• External Urethral Orifice

• Males = end of penile urethra

• Females = anterior to vaginal opening, posterior to clitoris

pg 662

• Emptying bladder

• Stretch receptors in bladder respond when bladder full

• Parasympathetic signals detrusor muscle to contract and internal urinary sphincter to open (also inhibits sympathetic pathways that would prevent urination)

• Other brain receptors can inhibit urination by relaxing detrusor, and keep external urinary sphincter closed

• Voluntary contraction of abdominal wall muscles increases abdominal pressure

• Voluntary relaxation of external urethral sphincter

See pg 663

• Alimentary Canal

• Mouth

• Pharynx

• Esophagus

• Stomach

• Small Intestine

• Large Intestine

• Accessory Organs

• Teeth, Tongue

• Salivary Glands

• Gallbladder

• Liver

• Pancreas

pg 5

• Ingestion: taking food into mouth

• Propulsion: food moves through gut

• Swallowing + Peristalsis

• Mechanical Digestion: breakdown of food

• Chewing, Churning, Segmentation

• Chemical Digestion: chemical breakdown

• Enzymes

• Absorption: Digestive end products into blood

• Defecation: Removal of waste products

• Internal = Mucosa + Submucosa

• Epithelium

• Lamina propria:

• contains MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

• Muscularis mucosae

• Submucosa = CT w/elastic fibers, nerves, vessels

• Middle = Muscularis Externa

• Inner circular layer

• Outer longitudinal layer

• Creates sphincters

• Outer = Serosa or Adventitia

• 2 Plexuses: Myenteric & Submucosal

• Parasympathetic, Sympathetic, Visceral Sensory fibers

• Enteric Nervous System

• 100 million neurons in walls of alimentary canal = internal system

• Within above plexuses

• Independent reflex arcs

• Controls glandular secretion, peristalsis, segmentation

• Autonomic Nervous System speeds up or slows activity controlled by enteric system

• “J” shape

• Cardiac Region

• Junction esophagus

• Cardiac sphincter (Gastroesophageal)

• Fundus (“dome”)

• Under diaphragm

• Body

• Large, middle part

• Pylorus

• Distal portion

• Pyloric sphincter

• Greater Curvature

• Lesser Curvature

Pg 624

• Mucosa

• Rugae: mucosal folds allow expansion

• Many intrinsic glands

• Goblet cells

• Gastric glands

• Typical Submucosa

• Muscularis externa

• Oblique layer

• Circular layer

• Pyloric sphincter

• Longitudinal layer

• Serosa

pg 624

• Temporary storage of chyme

• Breakdown begins

• Churn, segmentation

• Pepsin proteins

• Absorption

• H2O, electrolytes

• Alcohol, other drugs

• Stays about 4 hours

• Hold from1.5-4 liters

Small Intestine: Parts + Functions

• Parts

• Duodenum = proximal (5%)

• Jejunum = middle (~40%)

• Ileum = distal (~55%)

• Majority of enzymatic digestion

• Bile: emulsifier (gallbladder, liver)

• Enzymes (pancreas)

• Almost all nutrient absorption

• Segmentation

• Moves chyme around to increase contact with intestine walls

• Food takes about 3-6 hours to move through

• 2.7- 6 meters

• Intestinal flora: produce vitamin K

• Simple columnar epithelium w/many modifications for absorption

• Lymph tissue in submucosa

• Muscularis externa has 2 layers

• Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus

• Arterial supply:

• Superior mesenteric

• Rt (cranial) pancreaticoduodenal

Small Intestine:Modifications of epithelium for absorption

• Length

• Increase surface area

• Plicae circularis

• Transverse ridges of mucosa

• Increase surface area

• Slow movement of chyme

• Villi

• Move chyme, increase contact

• Contain lacteals: remove fat

• Microvilli:

• Increase surface area

• Modifications decrease distally

pg 629

• Duodenum:

• short, straight

• Mostly retroperitoneal

• Jejunum & Ileum:

• highly coiled

• Fewer modifications

• Hang by mesentery in peritoneal cavity

• Mesentery Arcades

• Arteries + veins

• Nerves

• Store fat

Pg 614

• Cecum

• Vermiform appendix

• Colon

• Ascending

• Transverse

• Descending

• Sigmoid

• Rectum

• Anal Canal

pg 631

• Functions:

• Absorb water and electrolytes

• Form, store and expel feces from body

• Internal Features:

• Intestinal flora

• No intestinal villi or modifications for absorption

• Many goblet cells

• Simple columnar epithelium except lower half of anal canal

• Significant Lymph tissue in mucosa & submucosa

• Muscularis mucosae has 2 layers

• Some parasympathetic innervation from vagus

Colon: External Features

• Taeniae coli

• 3 longitudinal strips

• thickening of longitudinal muscle

• maintain muscle tone

• create haustra

• Haustra

• saclike divisions

• Epiploic Appendages

• fat-filled pouches

• significance unknown

pg 631

• Cecum

• sac-like, blind pouch

• Ileocecal valve

• raised edges of mucosa

• prevents feces going back into ileum

• Vermiform Appendix

• same layers

• blind tube opens into cecum

• masses of lymph tissue

pg 631

• Ascending colon

• Right side

• Hepatic flexure (= right colic flexure)

• Transverse colon

• Across cavity

• Descending colon

• Left side

• Splenic flexure (= left colic flexure )

• Sigmoid colon

• Enters pelvis

• “S” shape

pg 631

• Absorb H2O and electrolytes

• Some digestion by bacteria

• Mass Peristaltic Movements (2-3x day)

• Moves through in 12-24 hours

• 1.5 meters

Rectum + Anal Canal

• Rectum

• descends into pelvis

• no teniae coli

• longitudinal muscle layer complete

• rectal valves

• Anal Canal

• passes through levator ani muscle

• releases mucus to lubricate feces

• Internal anal sphincter

• involuntary, smooth m.

• External anal sphincter

• voluntary, skeletal m.

• Stratified squamosal epithelium at lower half

pg 632

• Stretching of rectum wall initiates reflex

• Spinal cord - parasympathetic signals sigmoid colon + rectum to contract + anal sphincter to relax (involuntary)

• If not ready-reflex ends- rectum relaxes

• Reflex initiated again until you go!

• Contraction of abdominal muscles, levator ani + diaphragm assists defecation (voluntary)

Liver

• Largest gland (3 lbs)

• Location

• Upper Right Quadrant

• Mostly under ribcage

• Highly vascular

• Some functions

• produce bile

• pick up glucose

• detoxify poison, drugs

• make blood proteins

• many others

pg 635

• Diaphragmatic surface

• Right lobe (larger)

• Left lobe

• Falciform ligament

• Fissure between

• Visceral surface

• Quadrate lobe

• Caudate lobe

• Both part of left lobe

pg 635

Liver: Visceral Surface

• Hepatic Vein (into inferior vena cava)

• Porta Hepatis

• Hepatic Artery (from abdominal aorta )

• Hepatic Portal Vein

• Carries nutrient-rich blood from stomach + intestines to liver

• Portal system = 2 capillary beds!

• Hepatic Ducts (carry bile)

pg 636

• Muscular sac

• Between right + quadrate liver lobes

• Bile is stored + concentrated

• Bile: breaks down fats = emulsification

• Bile

• Produced by liver

• Stored in gallbladder

pg 610

• Mucosa & lamina propria

• Simple columnar epithelium

• Expandable mucosal folds

• Smooth muscle layer

• Thick connective tissue

• Covered by serosa in places

• Cystic duct

• carries bile from gallbladder

• Hepatic duct

• carries bile from liver

• Common Bile duct

• joins cystic and hepatic

• carries bile into duodenum

pg 628

Movement of Bile

• Bile secreted by liver continuously

• Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla

• common bile + main pancreatic duct meet and enter duodenum

• Sphincter of Oddi around it

• closed when bile not needed for digestion

• Bile then backs up into gallbladder via cystic duct

• When needed gallbladder contracts, sphincters open

pg 628

• Retroperitoneal

• Gland

• Exocrine

• digestive enzymes

• Endocrine

• hormone insulin

• hormone glucagon

• Location

• curve of duodenum

• extends to spleen

pg 639

• Main Pancreatic duct

• joins common bile duct

• enters duodenum

• Hepatopancreatic (Vater) ampulla

• Accessory Pancreatic duct

• enters duodenum in other location

pg 628

• Largest lymph organ

• Highly vascular

• Function

• remove blood-borne antigens (immune)

• remove and destroy old/damaged blood cells

• stores blood platelets

• In fetus: site of hematopoiesis

pg 639

• All branches of Abdominal Aorta

• Anastomoses

• Left + Middle colic

• Left + Right gastric

• Left + Right gastroepiploic

• Cranial + Caudal pancreaticoduodenal

• Deep Iliac Circumflex + Adrenolumbar

• STUDY HAND OUT! MUST KNOW WHAT SUPPLIES WHAT!!

Pancreatico = pancreas

Cystic = gallbladder

Gastro = stomach

Splenic = spleen

Adreno = adrenal gl

Lumbar = lumbar region

Epiploic = membrane-covered

Mesenteric = mesentery

Duodenal = duodenum

Ileo = ileum

Colic = colon

Rectal = rectum

Names give hints!