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Composite Risk Management Operational Level. Terminal Learning Objective. Task: Apply Composite Risk Management (CRM) to operations, training, and activities. Condition: In a classroom, given a practical exercise, and FM 5-19 and related publication

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Composite risk management operational level
Composite Risk ManagementOperational Level

Terminal learning objective
Terminal Learning Objective

Task: Apply Composite Risk Management (CRM) to operations, training, and activities.

Condition: In a classroom, given a practical exercise, and FM 5-19 and related publication

Standards: IAW FM 5-19 and current CRM guidance from Chief of Staff, Army and Director, Army Safety/CG, US Army Combat Readiness Center

Elo a explain the need for crm

ELO AExplain the Need for CRM


*Other: Medical, Suicide, Criminal & Undetermined.

Data Sources: USACRC RMIS, Preliminary Loss Reports, AFIP, and HRC



Combat loss leading causes oif coalition forces jan 03 apr 06



Combat Loss: Leading Causes OIF Coalition Forces—Jan 03-Apr 06

Soldier fatalities due to other causes february 2005 june 2006
Soldier Fatalities due to Other CausesFebruary 2005 – June 2006

The need for change

The Army’s purpose is enduring: fight and win the nation’s wars! Purpose is the same; methods change

Traditional means of Safety, Risk Management, and Warfighting are not compatible with today’s demands

The Need for Change

Transformation of loss prevention
Transformation of nation’s wars! Purpose is the same; methods changeLoss Prevention

  • Legacy Army Safety was Accident-Centric and inadequate to solve the problem of Loss in the Army

  • Army fatalities result in loss to families, friends, and combat power

  • SECARMY and CSA “enlarged the problem” in order to solve it


As of 26 July 2006

Integrating crm and command philosophy
Integrating CRM and Command Philosophy nation’s wars! Purpose is the same; methods change

  • Army Culture—no preventable loss is acceptable

  • Leaders are key to preventing loss—every commander, leader, and manager is responsible to integrate CRM into all missions and activities

  • CRM produces actionable knowledge, enabling smart decision making

  • Officers and NCOs are accountable for preserving our most precious resource: the Soldier

Composite risk management crm

CRM expands traditional Risk Management to address ALL losses

Views a loss as a loss, no matter where or how it occurs

Assesses risk holistically

Manages Risk 24/7

Focuses on readiness and preserving combat power

Focuses on Soldiers

Composite Risk Management(CRM)

Crm process

Develop losses

Controls & Make

Risk Decision




& Evaluate

CRM Process







Crm purpose premise scope

Purpose losses

Sound individual and leader risk decisions

Prevent unnecessary loss

The premise of CRM is that it does not matter where or how a loss occurs, the result is the same:

decreased combat power

degraded mission effectiveness

The scope of CRM encompasses the full spectrum of Army missions, functions, operations, and activities. CRM broadens the scope of Safety to prevent loss from combat, accident, and other causes

CRMPurpose, Premise, & Scope

Crm guiding principles

Integrate CRM into all phases of missions and operations losses

Make risk decisions at the appropriate level

Accept no unnecessary risk

Apply the process cyclically and continuously

Do not be risk averse


Controls & Make

Risk Decision




& Evaluate

CRM Guiding Principles







Leadership imperatives
Leadership Imperatives losses

  • G-1 Accountability

  • Army Readiness Assessment Program

  • Accountability for DAC Safety and Occupational Health

  • Accident Reporting

  • ASMIS-2 POV Risk Assessment Tool

  • Commander’s Safety Course

  • Additional Duty Safety Course

  • Army Traffic Safety Training Program

Crm tools and resources losses

CRM Tools and Resources

  • Assessment

    • Army Readiness Assessment Program (ARAP)

    • ASMIS-1 (Mission Risk Assessment Tool)

    • ASMIS-2 (POV Risk Assessment Tool)

  • Reporting

  • Information

    • Risk Management Information System (RMIS)

    • Preliminary Loss Reports (PLR)

    • Commander’s Corner

  • Training – Combat Readiness University

Practical exercise scenarios 1 2 and 3

Practical Exercise lossesScenarios 1, 2, and 3

Elo b explain crm operational concepts

ELO B lossesExplain CRM Operational Concepts

Crm and the operations process fm 3 0
CRM and The Operations Process losses (FM 3-0)

Identify Hazards-Assess Hazards-Develop Controls-Make Risk Decision- Implement Controls-Supervise & Evaluate

The operations process expanded fmi 5 0 1

CONTROL losses


Commander’s Intent

Planning guidance


Delegation of authority

Assignment of missions & tasks

Plans and Orders

Graphic control measures

Unit SOP

Information requirements

Laws and regulations


Military Decision Making Process

Troop Leading Procedures

The Operations Processexpanded (FMI 5-0.1)


  • Revise and refine plan

  • Rehearsals

  • Task Organize

  • Train

  • Troop movements

  • Pre-operations checks

  • Logistics

  • Integrating new Soldiers and units

  • Subordinate confirmation back-briefs


Rapid Decision Making and Synchronization Process

  • Focus assets on decisive operation

  • Adjust commander’s CCIR based on situation

  • Manage movement and positioning of supporting units

  • Adjust unit missions and tasks as necessary

  • Modify concept of operations as required

  • Position or relocate committed, supporting, and reserve units


  • Monitor

  • Evaluate using commander’s visualization and running estimates


C2,Intelligence, Maneuver, Sustainment, Fire Support, Protection


IPB, Targeting, Intelligence synchronization, Composite Risk Management


ISR, Security, Protection, Liaison/Coordination, Terrain Mgt, Information Ops, A2C2

Crm warfighting functions warfighting tasks
CRM, Warfighting Functions, lossesWarfighting Tasks

Plan losses

  • Commanders

    • CRM is an integral part of planning

    • Identify hazards and assess the probability and severity of their occurrence

    • Determine acceptable risk and convey same in planning guidance

  • Staff

    • Consider Commander’s risk guidance in developing COA’s

    • Evaluate acceptability (risk vs. benefit) of each COA

Mdmp tlp and crm

CRM is fully integrated and supportive of the MDMP and TLP losses

CRM provides a process by which hazards may be identified and considered in the decision making, problem solving, and troop leading


Fm5 0 army problem solving screening criteria
FM5-0 lossesArmy Problem Solving (Screening Criteria)

• Suitability—solves the problem and is legal and ethical

• Feasibility—fits within available resources

• Acceptability—worth the cost or risk

• Distinguishability—differs significantly from other solutions

• Completeness—contains the critical aspects of solving the problem from start to finish


Develop Controls to counter the risks associated with relevant hazards

Mission Rehearsals


Equipment Checks

SOP Reviews

Load Plan Verification

Reassess Risk—determine residual risk levels and overall mission risk

Make Risk Decisions

Acceptable level of risk

Decision made at the right level of command



…I am heartily tired of hearing about what Lee is going to do. Some of you always seem to think he is suddenly going to turn a double somersault and land in our rear and on both flanks at the same time. Go back to your command and try to think what we are going to do ourselves, instead of what Lee is going to do.

Lieutenant General U.S. Grant

Battle of the Wilderness, 1864


  • Taking action

  • Creating and exploiting opportunities

  • Continuously assessing the situation, integrating CRM and RDSP, and taking calculated risks

  • Applying sound tactics

  • Employing joint capabilities

Informs bold decision making

Be bold, decisive, and violent. At the same time, understand when and where to take risks

Do not hesitate to execute your plan

Dispel uncertainty through action; create a response.

Seize the initiative, press the fight, overcome adversity

Informs Bold Decision-Making

Desired end state

Informed decisions to control hazards or accept risks, made at the appropriate level of authority

Risk reduction commensurate with the commander’s intent

Risk issues elevated to the next higher command when resources to control high risk are not available

Desired End State

Supervise and evaluate assess

Commanders at the appropriate level of authority

Continuously assess

Direct adjustments

Evaluation Tools


Key Leaders at critical nodes

Measures of Effectiveness

Measures of Performance

Running estimates


Brief Backs



Supervise and Evaluate(Assess)

Fm 7 0 training the force

Leaders are Responsible for Training at the appropriate level of authority

Actions and decisions are critical to prevent loss

Enforce safety and manage risks

Train as You Operate

Risk is inherent to Army training.

Safety and CRM must be integrated throughout training.

CRM is not risk aversion

Train to Standard

Train to Sustain

FM 7-0Training the Force

Activities and crm
Activities and CRM at the appropriate level of authority

Practical exercise scenario 4

Practical Exercise at the appropriate level of authorityScenario 4

Elo c identify crm operational responsibilities

ELO C at the appropriate level of authorityIdentify CRMOperational Responsibilities

Integrate crm as specified by doctrine

AR 385-10 at the appropriate level of authorityArmy Safety Program

FM 5-19 Composite Risk Management

FM 3-100.12 Risk Management (Multi-service)

FM 3-0 Operations

FM 5-0 Army Planning and Orders Production

FMI 5-0.1 The Operations Process

FM 7-0 Training the Force

Integrate CRM as specified by Doctrine

Leadership imperatives1
Leadership Imperatives at the appropriate level of authority

  • G-1 Accountability

  • Army Readiness Assessment Program

  • Accountability for DAC Safety and Occupational Health

  • Accident Reporting

  • ASMIS-2 POV Risk Assessment Tool

  • Commander’s Safety Course

  • Additional Duty Safety Course

  • Army Traffic Safety Training Program

Use the safety support structure
Use the Safety Support Structure at the appropriate level of authority

Additional duty safety officer
Additional Duty Safety Officer at the appropriate level of authority

Per AR 385-10, Commanders must appoint additional duty safety personnel to perform required safety and accident prevention functions in units not staffed with full-time safety personnel. In troop units, this includes company level or equivalent organizational component. These unit safety personnel will—

  • Be appointed in writing on orders

  • Be a commissioned officer at battalion and higher unit levels

  • Be in the rank of staff sergeant or higher at company level

  • Have completed, or will complete, a local unit safety officer course

  • Have 1 year or more retainability in the unit upon duty appointment

  • Give their safety officer duties proper priority

  • Report directly to the commander on safety-related matters

Report losses
Report Losses at the appropriate level of authority

  • Damage to Army property, including government-furnished equipment, property, or material

  • Injury (fatal or nonfatal) to on-duty or off-duty military personnel

  • Injury (fatal or nonfatal) to on-duty Army civilian personnel

  • Occupational injury or illness (fatal or nonfatal)

  • Any injury (fatal or nonfatal) or illness to non-Army personnel, or damage to non-Army property, as a result of Army operations

  • Class E Aviation incidents

  • FOD incidents (Class F)

Reporting loss how are we doing
Reporting Loss: How are we doing? at the appropriate level of authority

  • 94% of Army accidents/ incidents were not reported to USACRC

  • AR 385-40 requires reporting, analysis, and investigation in order to

    • Identify cause factors and deficiencies

    • Develop countermeasures to prevent recurrent loss

    • Identify trends that may have potential impact beyond your formations (share lessons learned)

Accidents/Incidents, 2003-2006

Own the edge
OWN the EDGE at the appropriate level of authority

Favorable Conditions Challenging Conditions at the appropriate level of authority

DOTMLPF matches Mission Tough Decisions

Risk Management

Where’s the Edge?

Where the 1st-line Leader draws it!

Lead on the Edge!

Conditions exceed capabilities

Beyond reasonable expectations

Consequence Management

Oak tree counseling
Oak Tree Counseling at the appropriate level of authority

  • Personal Leader Engagement

    • Leader to Soldier

    • Supervisor to Employee

  • Directly address high-risk individual behavior traits on and off duty

  • Special focus areas

    • Alcohol or substance abuse

    • Suicide potential

    • Recently redeployed from combat

      • Overconfidence

      • New freedom

      • Feelings of invincibility

  • Leaders assist troops and employees in Owning the Edge

“With all the techniques available, preventing loss always boils down to personal leader engagement.”

General B. B. Bell

Practical exercise scenario 5

Practical Exercise at the appropriate level of authorityScenario 5


Summary at the appropriate level of authority